The Stonehenge Carvings

 

Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet

Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet

 

Greetings from Cape Breton. At last I have made the figure 8 back to my blog.

Two and a half years ago a gentleman named Lloyd Matthews wrote to me about some carvings he believed were original to the stone monument at Stonehenge. Did I know what they might mean?

No, I had no idea that they existed. I haven’t been to Stonehenge, so I’ve never had a chance to have a good look at the stones. Like most people who are interested in Stonehenge, I knew about the carvings of the axe heads and the Mycenaean knife but knew nothing about the carvings Mr. Matthews showed me.

We have put in all this time researching and spending hundreds of hours with our astronomy programs and reading, reading, reading and watching documentaries about Stonehenge. Part way through our project, James Matthews joined us and made sure everything was correctly written and contributed to some of the diagrams and the research. Great stacks of email have crossed the Atlantic since the start of our project, but now we are finished, happy with the outcome of our research.

So now we present it to you , my readers. We hope you will enjoy this paper and I hope that the fact that it is 90 + pages will make up for my two and a half year disappearance. I’m not sure when I will be back but I’ll have something new and interesting. Ancient history is full of interesting things.

Click the link below to read the pdf.

 

Stonehenge Carvings v.3 (1)

 

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Cygnus, Thoth, XPI, and the Brodgar Complex

The story about the two XPI pages from the Book of Kells and the Lindisfarne Gospels, has become somewhat more complicated, but much more enlightening, since it explains why these two pages used the same theme. At these two places. The Book of Kells was made on the Island of Iona, which is on the west side of northern Scotland. The Lindisfarne Gospels were made at Holy Island, off the north east coast of England. Iona was the mother house to Lindisfarne.

The big X on both pages, which is a bird, the Swan, is laying an egg with his wing tip upon something with the head of an Ibis. There’s the head of a man, who seems to be wearing some sort of turban. They both have the straight staff and the one with the curl in it, which are the bird’s legs. They both have many other things made up of triskels, which make up little pictures, and both have birds entwined. The Book of Kells also has serpents  and ‘beard pullers’ entwined. These two pages belong to the story, ” Thoth, as the Ibis, laid an egg on the Mound of Creation, which is Hathor as the Milky Way. From the egg, Ra, the Sun god was born”. Even though both these pages say XPI for Christos, which is the Greek version of the name. The early Christian manuscripts were written in Greek, Latin didn’t come to the UK and Ireland for a few centuries after Christianity arrived.  Both books do use Latin in the script, but in special cases, Greek still shows up, particularly in the Book of Kells. As in the word Christos, since the monk who created the page in the Book of Kells, actually spelled out the word on the page. He also used Ogham to give symbolic messaging, craftily hidden in plain sight. That is, if you can recognize it.

Triskels are basically shapes with three corners, which according to the experts represent the Trinity, but they came into existence long before Christianity, so a different sort of Trinity at one time. Past, Present and Future, the three Planes of Existence. The picture below  shows the sorts of shapes they could become, but the sky’s the limit when it comes to the different shapes, as long as they had three corners. Beard pullers are men with one lock of hair and their beards knotted up with each other or some other object.

Sometimes when I want to write about a topic, I seem to hold back. It’s not prevarication, rather it feels like waiting. Waiting for what? Waiting, because I feel that there is something missing about that particular topic. Something which will be important, something which might explain the subject. I take notice of this feeling, because I have found other things when this has happened before. I generally search the web for artefacts and articles, or I read some of my books, not really knowing what I’m looking for, but knowing I’ll find what ever it is I’m supposed to find. Quite often, the find is a coincidence, like someone posting an address on another blog, which just happens to give me one of my answers. This did in fact happen this time, but along with that, I also found something else. The two together are quite interesting.

The first thing I came across, were some papers written by Derek Cunningham, in which he theorizes that there was once a world map created, which was based on Cygnus. He actually started out trying to disprove the theories of Andrew Collins in the Cygnus Mystery. Andrew Collins and Rodney Hales showed how the layout for the Great pyramid and its companions match the formation of Cygnus better than Orion, which is logical, since Thoth was supposed to have been the architect of the Great pyramid. Thoth being Cygnus, usually shown as the Ibis. Instead, Derek Cunningham found that this theory is correct, and that it connects to a whole world map based on Cygnus, the Swan or Northern Cross, which seems to have been used by ancient mariners. Just can’t get away from those astronomer/navigators. His theories, maps, and pictures do suggest that he is correct about the world map.

His map of Cygnus on the landscape of Scotland was based on geoglyphs that he found. They include large Xs, parallel lines, a triangle with lines leading in all directions coming off it, and some strangely shaped lakes. He also took into account the ancient Christian places of Iona, Dunkeld and Holy Island because they were supposed to have been built on land which was sacred long before Christianity came along.  Close to Dunkeld there is a nest of lines, parallel, triangular, etc. The map below is part of the result. This is a mirror image of what appeared in the sky when  this mapping system began, which Derek Cunningham dates to between 10,000-12,000 BCE. So right after the Big Ice had mostly melted away. As can be seen, these lines run to other important places in the world, and one from Calbost runs all the way to Giza in Egypt and beyond. It could take you to Australia, particularly if there was a canal in ancient times where the Suez canal is now. I have read about such a canal more than once in my lifetime. The line running to Jerusalem is likely Mount Carmel which figures in the St. Michael-Apollo Line.

However, Scotland didn’t look quite like this at the time, since this is before the Storrega Slide, and the incredibly bad tsunami it created, wiping out a great deal of Doggerland, and parts of Scotland. The Hebrides and the Orkneys were then part of a solid piece of land as shown below. These Islands must have been high points of land for them to have survived the flooding.  This is likely why so many islands, all the way back to Cyprus, were considered holy islands. They survived all the flooding which took place after the Ice Age ended. This is probably why so many ancient constructions were placed on high ground, they might survive if there was ever anymore flooding. This likely accounts for megalithic building, even though most of it happened much later.

The three red dots on Derek’s map, are ones I added. These are three wing stars which are part of Cygnus, which he didn’t take into account, but I did, knowing what is up there. Many Christian, Roman and Norman sites were built over much older sites, which were part of the original geodesy. It is possible that the very early Church had people who still understood this. At least it would seem so with the two XPI pages.

These three dots are very important to this story. I first put in the dots, and then went to look at a close up map of the locations. One is on Mainland Orkney, where there are two major roads which cross in a  big X formation. One dot falls on water, possibly land when this was created. The third dot is on Papa Westray, where an ancient tomb named the Holm of Papa Westray, and the Knap of Howar can be found. Up until a few years ago, the Knap of Howar was the oldest farm in Europe, it dates c3700 BCE. Since then, another farm has been discovered on the east side of Scotland, which has been dated c4000 BCE. The people there kept cattle, sheep and pigs, and grew several types of grain crops. The island of Wyre has also produced a settlement which so far dates c3300 BCE. Jura had people settled there in the Mesolithic. Scotland is becoming a regular hotbed of ancient constructions, and archaeologists are now realizing that the Orkneys do seem to have been the centre of some very important goings on. There’s the Barnhouse settlement close to the Stones of Stennes, and possibly two close to the Ring of Brodgar. One settlement has been found north of Brodgar by magnetometry scans, a whole new settlement which was unknown up until now.

It is the view of the archaeologists that the whole peninsula of Brodgar could well hold a great deal more. A circular enclosure has been spotted from the air close to Maeshowe, although it isn’t known at present what this might be. What has been uncovered so far at Brodgar, suggests that there were alignments to the Equinoxes and the Solstices, so all Solar.

These buildings at Ness Brodgar are quite substantial, particularly Structure Ten. It measures 25 metres (82 feet) long and 20 metres (65 feet) wide in outside dimensions. The walls are five metres thick. It has a paved walkway all around, which may also have been covered by the roof.  Inside have been found a central hearth and four ‘dressers’, although these are now being viewed as ‘altars’. These were free-standing rather than placed against the wall as at Skara Brae. Far enough away from the wall so that you could walk around it.  They were made of yellow and red sandstone, their origin is not known at the moment, but this sandstone was brought from elsewhere.

                                                                            A  typical ‘dresser’ at Skara Brae

Structure Ten at Brodgar has now been jokingly called the ‘Cathedral’. Structure Eight at the Barnhouse settlement, close to the Stones of Stennes, shows evidence of having had a slate roof, many slates were found inside, all nicely even in thickness and cut squarely. Some have also been found in structure Ten. Neither hearth in Ten or Eight seems to have been used for cooking, all cooking at Eight seems to have taken place in an adjacent paved area outside. At Skara Brae, all the cooking seems to have been done in a building separate from the rest. Very monastic-like.

The outside stonework of Structure Ten was very well made and quite beautiful, but the inside stonework was rather “scrappy”, says Nick Card, archaeologist at the site, as if the building was meant to impress from the outside, but few people may have actually used the inside. The building is aligned east/west, with an entrance in the east, an Equinox alignment. Near the altar/dresser, which faces the east entrance, was found a stone now known as the Brodgar Eye. It is thought to have been part of this altar/dresser, and that the Equinox Sunrise would have shone right on it. Nick Card wondered if this was a Sun symbol. Yes indeed, it is a very ancient Sun symbol, and in Egypt it was a symbol for light. The monk who created the XPI page from Lindisfarne, used it on that page. The Druid’s beard is flowing toward it.

My own thought about this building, is that this was the headquarters and workplace of the astronomer/navigators. The altar/dressers were desks, a work surface to create maps on, likely made on hides. The tops themselves may have star maps on them, since they have pecking and cup marks and ‘decoration’ on them. The shelves below were for these rolled up hide maps, their ink cakes and pens made of reeds or quills. Swan’s quills? The Equinox Sunrise alignment makes perfect sense, the best long distance sailing time occurs between the Spring and Fall Equinox, particularly in a time with no motors, radio, radar, GPS, and all the other modern gear we have today. Even with all that, the Atlantic is no picnic in December.

It is starting to look as if all the Orkney Islands were inhabited in the Neolithic and Bronze Age, and that they were inhabited for at least a thousand years.  But the excavations are nowhere near finished, and the archaeologists think that there could still be whole layers of other constructions further down at Brodgar, which could show that it was inhabited for a much longer time. At the Links of Notland, on Westray, another settlement is being excavated. This is where the Orkney Venus was found. It has the same eyebrow/eye motif which was found at the Holm of Papa Westray, a chambered cairn.

These carvings are reminiscent of the Folkton Drums which also have the eyebrow/eye motif on them.  The motif on the Folkton Drums is part of the Akhet, the Sun between two mountains. The Winter Solstice Sunset, as seen from Maeshowe and other places belonging to the Brodgar Complex, happens between two mountains, where it sets into the Island of Hoy. There are special sightings of Venus about those same mountains. The eyebrows on the Folkton Drums is a large winged bird, Cygnus. Another carving has been found on Westray, part of the wall of what is considered an important building, also with fine stonework and larger than the rest so far excavated. Here we have the Akhet again, and that story, “Thoth, as the Ibis, laid an egg on the Mound of Creation, which was Hathor as the Milky Way. From the egg, Ra, the Sun god was born”.

That big winged bird was of prime importance to the world map, which Derek Cunningham discovered. He drew lines running from the various sites in Scotland on a world map in the following picture. Notice how there are three lines running from Scotland through the area of the Suez Canal? They could take you right to Australia, if there had been a canal there in ancient times.

Certainly looks as if Scotland was the place for ancient astronomer/navigators. And what do the two XPI pages have to do with this? Turn the pages upside down, and now consider the Cygnus over Scotland map, and the Mound of Creation with its Ibis head, now becomes the Orkney Islands. Holy Island is Albireo, the head of the Cygnus Constellation. The Druid’s head on the Lindisfarne page has his beard flowing toward the south west, the direction of Sunset of the Winter Solstice. The head on the Kells page is facing west, the direction of Sunset on the Equinoxes. Seems those monks who made these pages, must have been aware of this lovely piece of geodesy, and they left us a record of those times, which occurred thousands of years before they were born. St. Columba, of Druid heritage, was at Iona, and seems to have built a very early church at Dunkeld. The later medieval Cathedral there was dedicated to St. Columba. With his background, he may have known about this geodesy. Iona was a Druid mystics’ retreat long before Christianity.

Were the people at Brodgar Druids? At the moment it isn’t known, but it is believed that there was an elite priesthood there. One which was certainly concerned with astronomy. Much artwork has been found there, although I have only seen the Brodgar Eye. One building had a stone with eight rows of lozenges, another had a cist in the floor covered by a triangular stone. It was situated in such a way, that you would have to walk over it. There are also other markings there, which by the description could be Ogham. Perhaps I can get some pictures, that is if I can get any answers from the archaeologists. One can only hope at the moment, but the Brodgar Eye and the Akhet, do point to Egyptian connections, even the monks made the head of the Mound of Creation, the head of an Ibis. As far as I know, there is only one connection to an Ibis, and that’s Thoth in Egypt.

Derek Cunningham made many interesting discoveries, but one in particular caught my eye. A spiral hill on Iona, I outlined what I could see there. Hmmm………The Horned Man? Or does this actually mean something else?

Among the contents of a Hittite sign list, I found a symbol for, propheta. This word is in Luwian, a language connected to Wilusa, which is where the city of Troy was. Propheta is self-explanatory, prophet, in other words. But a prophet in ancient times, probably started out as an astronomer/astrologer. They made prophesies using the Sun, Moon, planets, constellations and other stars. What he has on his head is a sort of turban with long tails, which explains the head-gear being worn by the men on the two XPI pages, and likely this head on the landscape of Iona. As I said, Iona was a Druid mystics’ retreat long ago. Mystics are often prophets. If this head is as old as many of the other geoglyphs, then the people at Brodgar likely were Druids. They were at Silbury Hill c2500 BCE.

References

Midnight Science Journal, papers by Derek Cunningham

Orkneyjar, postings by Sigurd Towrie

Dunkeld, Wikipedia

Pictures

XPI pages from the Book of Kells, the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Doggerland map, Wikipedia.

Map of Cygnus over Scotland, World line map, and the spiral hill on Iona, Midnight Science Journal, papers by Derek Cunningham. Cygnus over Scotland on an Ordinance survey map. World map from Mapquest. Iona spiral hill from Google-Imagery

Propheta from Hittite Sign List pdf. author Gunter Anders

Cygnus map, starrynighteducation.com, Oaklands Astronomy Club

Orkney Venus, carvings at Holm of Papa Westray, the Brodgar Eye, picture of excavation at Brodgar, picture of the Akhet stone, the stone dresser at Skara Brae, and the magnetometry scan from Orkneyjar, posted by Sigurd Towrie

Folkton Drums, Ancient Celtic New Zealand.

The Golden Barrow Treasures

The Golden Barrow or Upton Lovell G2e was near the River Wylye, slightly South West of Stonehenge. Since its excavation in 1803, it has been destroyed. This barrow contained as  many costly and interesting treasures as the Bush Barrow. There was more than one cremation found in this barrow, but the treasures only seem to have been with one person. It isn’t known whether this was a man or a woman, since necklaces may have been worn by anyone. On the other hand, the Wessex lord in the Bush Barrow had no necklaces with him, nor did the Amesbury Archer, nor his family member, who may have been his son. He also had gold ‘hair tresses’. Perhaps this particular person was a woman.

William Cunnington had the following to say about this barrow.

“TUMULUS XX (AW 98) Copy of a letter to H. P. Wyndham Esq July 28th 1803

Sir I have this day opened a barrow in Upton Lovell it is situated in the meads a few yards north of the river Wylye. As the discoveries in this barrow are more important in their nature than any other ever yet made I hasten to inform you the particulars. This Barrow of a pyramidal form or rather like the common houses, pointing East to West, is in the base 52 by 32 feet, the slope 22 feet, the length on top 22 feet. The North side of the barrow is extremely ? the south side is much mutilated. On making a section lengthways of the barrow, at about two feet deep we found in a very shallow cist human burnt bones piled in a little heap, and at a foots distance a considerable quantity of ashes, which also contained small fragments of human bones, upon which and at two feet distant from the bones were found the following articles of pure gold, which are neatly wrought and highly polished, viz about ten gold beads* made in the form of a drum ? two ends to ……off and perforated in the sides…see Plate XI fig 5…….. a thin plate of the same metal…….nearly 9 inches by 6 inches long, this is very neatly ornamented as you will see by plate XI fig ?………by a beautiful Bulla of conical form, see figure 3 in the same plate- and inside this is a solid cone of wood, the gold which completely covered it is very thin, at the base are two holes for a thread or wire by which it was suspended see fig 4. near the above were found of four gold articles viz.. two of which that appeared once to have covered the ends of staffs (some of my friends say they are small boxes. see plate XI fig 1 and 2. Among the gold ornaments lay several flat pieces of amber, about the eighth of an inch in thickness, and about an inch wide, -they were all perforated lengthways but were sadly broken in getting out. ( see plate two fig 2 when joined they were the exact form of those found in Deverell Barrow only bigger). What is very extraordinary there were also nearly one thousand  amber beads of different sizes see Plat X fig 2. – Close to the pile of ashes we found a very small urn see Plate X fig 1. Also a lance head of brass and a pin of the same metal-see the same plate. The urn is of very extraordinary form, appearing as though it had been studded all over with small black grapes. In this barrow, contrary to the usual custom of interment on the Downs, which is generally on, or in the native soil we found the cist nearly on top of the barrow and this deviation was probably occasioned by the wetness of the soil, the barrow being near the river. We find in other respects a similar method of internment to what we find in many other barrows, the small urn, lance head of brass, brass pin etc are common. From the profusion of valuable ornaments, for valuable they must have been at the period of their internment, we might naturally conclude this barrow to have been the sepulchre of a great chief of the Belgic + Britons. +Mr. Coxe objects to the word Belgic, suppose we say British chief near the time of Caesars invasion.” (1)

Shale and amber beads, and the shale core of the gold covered  button

William Cunnington was a wee bit off with his dates, since it is now thought that the cremation dates 1900-1600 BCE, but like Bush Barrow, it could be older.  The gold artefacts from both barrows do look as if the same person made them. At the Wiltshire Heritage Museum, the bronze lance head is listed as a knife dagger, and the bronze pin is listed as an awl. The above amber and shale beads are believed to have been a necklace.

The gold beads, which were drum shaped, approximately 1/2 an inch long, had ends which could be screwed off, they were small containers, and could be opened even while being worn, perhaps as part of a bracelet, with the gold button used as a fastener. The button would have been on the outside of the arm. This fancy button is gold  foil over shale, named a Bulla by William Cunnington, and has holes drilled in a shallow V shape in the bottom. The measurements given for the gold cover are 47 mm in diameter and 43 mm in height.

Gold beads from the Golden Barrow

Gold Button showing top and undersideHow the bracelet may have looked and the method of tying it together.

Once the ends of the cord went through the button, it wouldn’t have to be removed again. It would be untied and loosened when removing it from your arm, but the end of the cord would stay through both holes. These ends may have been decorated with long hair from a cow’s tail, feathers or perhaps some of the amber beads which were found. Bracelets of this general form were commonly seen on the carvings of rulers from Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria. The ones from the area of the Fertile Crescent, usually had a flower on them. The button has the same triangle or zigzag decoration as was found on the large gold lozenge from the Bush Barrow. But the button has an extra surprise. On the bottom the design is the same as the central part of the Clandon Barrow lozenge, which was another device connected to mathematical coding as shown by Martin Doutré. This lozenge must also have been made by the same person.

The Clandon Barrow lozenge construction as drawn by Anthony Johnson

These mathematical codes were quite complicated, and were connected to astronomy, surveying, navigation, calendar keeping, weights, measures and volumes. The various articles which were inscribed with these codes, would have been used as memory devices. A question from a fellow blogger, made me investigate the Rillaton and Ringlemere cups a little closer. These were found at two different places and not with the Golden Barrow treasure.

The Rillaton cup (left) is 9 cm high, and the Ringlemere cup (right) is 11 cm high. One of my measuring cups looks to be about the same size as the Rillaton cup, only a little taller. 9 cm up the side of my cup gives me one pint. These cups may not have been for drinking beverages, instead they may have been measuring cups for some other purpose. The Ringlemere cup may have a pint capacity at the top of the corrugations, and perhaps another measurement when full. It may have held three cups when full. The corrugations likely indicated different measures, both dry and liquid.

A pint is an interesting measure since it can be found in both dry and liquid Imperial measure. Liquid measure: 4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1 gallon; 1 gallon = 231 cubic inches. Dry measure: 2 pints = 1 quart; 8 quarts = 1 peck; 4 pecks = 1 bushel; 10 pecks or 2 1/2 bushels = 1 barrel; 1 bushel = 2150.42 cubic inches. Thinking of the other mathematical codes found in the other gold objects, makes me wonder what measurements could be found in each groove of the corrugations. I don’t suppose the British Museum would allow me to conduct an investigation, unfortunately.

The handles on these cups are held to the body by lozenge-shaped rivets. The way they are attached makes them look like small Squares of Enlightenment. These lozenges, zigzags, and triangles are all little signatures of a highly evolved system of weights and measures. All these systems stem from astronomy, and do seem to have been around for thousands of years before we see the proof of such things in the UK and Ireland. However, these people may have used wood, stone, pottery or some other material for their original measuring devices. A piece of simple cord could have had knots tied in it at the appropriate places. It would be small, light and easy to carry around, but such things in the UK and Ireland would have decayed long ago. It’s obvious that whoever made these gold artefacts, had some sort of measuring device, and knew all the mathematical coding. The people using them would also have understood the coding, which means that we are looking at some very well educated people. The mathematics involved are really quite astounding.

Because these artefacts do all seem to be connected to measures of all sorts, based originally on the circumference of the Earth, it is quite possible that the cups, the Clandon Barrow treasure, the Bush Barrow Treasure, and the Golden Barrow treasure were all made by the same craftsman. I don’t imagine there were that many goldsmiths running about in those days who would have all this knowledge. In ancient times smiths were considered holy because they used the four ancient elements of Earth, Air, Fire and Water to make their artistic creations. In Egypt they were a priesthood, they were the magicians who could turn a solid substance into a liquid, and then reshape the hardened metal into whatever shape they wanted. The biggest percentage of the population would still have been using stone tools, so these ‘ornaments’ must have been mind-boggling for anyone who saw them. The Amesbury Archer being the foremost candidate as craftsman, since he had the gold ‘hair tresses’, the metal working kit, and the ‘wrist guards’ which were actually measuring devices. Perhaps the hair tresses were a sign of their profession.

Getting back to these interesting gold beads, they had me wondering what was kept in the containers. What were they for? What use did they have? They were strung together through two holes in the sides rather than two holes through the ends, which would have made it possible to separate one from its companions to be able to undo one of the lids, but why? I had several thoughts about this. Perhaps special powders were kept in them for creating green smoke, red smoke or sparkles when applied to a fire. Done on the sly of course, the peasants wouldn’t have known that there were special powders hiding in the bracelet. Such things were generally done after dark, so the only light may have been the fire.

But then I thought perhaps this person was keeping track of different women’s pregnancies. One container per person, and after each month went by, you would add a grain seed or perhaps a small piece of gravel. Questions would have been asked to determine which phase of the Moon, and how long ago this person thought they became pregnant. However, it is also possible that they were keeping track of different weights belonging to various systems. Wheat seeds were once at the root of weight measures. This is why we still have, grains, as a weight measure. Among the Hebrew desert weight (light) measures  can be found 131.25 grains. Having some wheat seed on hand, I did a little experiment. Each one of these gold containers could hold 12 wheat seeds, making a total of 132 if all the containers held 12 each. This bracelet now becomes a great deal more than just jewellery. The button likely had measures in its size and decorations. Drawing a triangle with base 47 cm and height 43 cm, pretty much gives you an equilateral triangle. The central mathematical codes of the Clandon Barrow lozenge are also on the bottom of the button. Considering what else has been discovered, coloured smoke seems rather lame. But who knows? These people were into dual purpose things.

           

The next piece is a gold plaque 144 mm by 68 mm, according to the Wiltshire Heritage Museum. It once had a wood back as did the two large gold lozenges. I’ve been stringing lines on it out of curiosity. The large lozenge has angles of 80° and 100°, these are the same as the large gold lozenge from the Bush Barrow. This area may have been connected to Solar/Lunar measurements. The tiny lozenges in the net at each end of the plaque have angles of 60° and 120°, which is what the small gold lozenge from the Bush Barrow had. This net is reminiscent of the lozenges I strung across England, which had to do with surveying. As a final bonus it has cording around the edge, the measuring cord. If the museum’s measurements are correct, then the circumference of the plaque would be 424 mm or 42.4 cm. 10 cm = 4 inches. So the circumference would be 16.96 inches. Dividing 16.96 by the magic number of hidden secrets, 4, I get 4.24 inches, which is a reflection and progression of 424 mm and 42.4 cm. This is the magic of metrology, all numbers in all systems are interconnected, having stemmed from one source, the Great Pyramid, which many consider to be much older than Khufu, who is supposed to have had it built.

Although I am not a mathematician, I’d say this gold plaque is likely full of mathematical coding, just like the gold lozenges. Seems these gold artefacts were more than mere jewellery, they were memory devices covering a wide range of measurements of all types. Being made of gold, they wouldn’t rot, their hidden knowledge has been there all the time, but few people have recognized their significance, thinking of them just as ornaments instead. Considering their function, they may be much older than Bush Barrow or Golden Barrow. They could well have been heirlooms when they were finally buried, possibly dating back to before 2300 BCE.  These articles may have been the ‘gold standard’, literally, of measurements in England at that time. They may have been used by the elite to keep an eye on the merchants’ measures, to make sure they were not short-changing the common folk. The Bell Beakers may have become so popular because they may have held a certain capacity or capacities, and became a common man’s measuring device all over Europe.

Two conical bosses and two flat pommels were found also. These were first interpreted by Sir Richard Colt-Hoare as small boxes, but William Cunnington found them several inches apart, suggesting they were the ends of two wooden sceptres. Unfortunately it doesn’t tell us how long these sceptres may have been. They may have been measuring rods, rather than just sceptres. This would be in keeping with the other measuring devices.

This last piece is quite fascinating. It is thought to have been an incense burner. Although several incense burners have been found in various barrows, this one is unique. There are 108 small knobs, which seem to have been applied to the pottery one by one. There were holes drilled into the pottery between these nodules. It’s rather made like a net.

All in all, these treasures are quite amazing, particularly all the mathematical coding found in these pieces. They must have been incredibly costly at that stage in history. Such gold instruments would be extremely costly now, even the lunula shaped amber necklace would cost a fortune today. Who were the people who owned these items? Have we stumbled upon the people named the Tuatha Danann? Were they the people of the goddess Anu, D’Anu, or should that be the god Anu, or his wife Antu? The Abantu of South Africa are Ab Antu, the children of Antu. D’Anu in Sumerian would mean, of Anu. This puts us back with Anu’s White Temple and Inanna’s Temple in Uruk. The artefacts from England that we have been looking at had the same design elements as the cone mosaics at Inanna’s Temple.  It’s all those names, Danann, Manannan, Inanna. The earliest form of Bran the Blessed’s name was Uran, which became Vran, and then Bran. Uran from Ur or Uruk? I am not through investigating these gold artefacts, and am making further enquiries regarding these. I will post my findings at a later date……….I hope.

References and pictures

For anyone interested in the mathematics which has been found at Stonehenge and on the Bush Barrow and Clandon Barrow lozenges, see Martin Doutré’s work at Ancient Celtic New Zealand, and D. P. Gregg’s, The Stonehenge Codes, which is in PDF form, so you can download it and read it at your leisure, it will take a while. For other measurements of various landmarks, megaliths, and ancient constructions in many countries, see Ancient-wisdom.co.uk. This is an excellent site with clear concise facts and plenty of detail and great pictures.

(1) William Cunnington, Manuscript Letters, Vol., p.35-6

Wiltshire Heritage Museum, articles and pictures of the Golden Barrow treasures, listed as Upton Lovell G2e.

British Museum, the Rillaton and Ringlemere cups

Drawing of the Clandon Barrow lozenge construction method, Anthony Johnson, at Wikipedia entitled Clandon Barrow.

Drawings of the amber and shale necklace, and the gold bracelet, J. Rankin

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part V

                                                                      Stonehenge at Winter Solstice Sunset

Stonehenge has Ogham?

The White Trail has led me on quite a voyage, from England to the Continent, to Egypt and the Fertile Crescent, then on to the Caucasus and Anatolia, with a few side trips to France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Scandinavia, Malta, Crete, Mexico, Peru, etc. Ancient history is like that, one place leads to another, but if I traced back from any of these places, I always seemed to end back in the Fertile Cresent, Egypt and Nubia. The land of the Hitittes was very interesting. Eventually I wandered back to the Queen Stone…..and Stonehenge. The outcome of some of my adventures were written about in the previous four parts.

What I came to realize, was that there were some very well educated people among all of these societies. Astronomy, higher mathematics, surveying. architecture, healing and navigation being among some of their knowledge. They had knowledge about farming and irrigation systems. They also seem to have spread around, sometimes very quickly, sometimes somewhat slower. Navigating oceans has seldom been taken seriously when it comes to ancient people, but the ancestors of the Aborigines of Australia left Africa c30,000 BCE. They didn’t walk all the way to Australia, so must have sailed part of the way, even if they were island hopping, they were still out at sea. Some of these people must have understood astronomy, or they wouldn’t have set out on the oceans. People who didn’t understand astronomy and navigation, didn’t venture too far from shore. People who did venture out onto the oceans, did understand astronomy and navigation. There was no other way in ancient times. It doesn’t matter how far back in history we go, if someone sailed out on the high seas, they knew what they were doing, which means they understood astronomy and navigation. A map such as the one made by Oronteus Finaeus, dating 1531, didn’t just arrive out of his imagination, someone mapped Antarctica when it was in that condition. It was thousands of years ago, long before ‘recorded history’, and they obviously understood astronomy, navigation and map making.

          Modern Map of Antarctica                      Map of Antarctica by Oronteus Finaeus, 1531

The Windmill Hill people have been likened to an ‘invasion of farmers’. North America could be said to have been invaded by farmers also, but they didn’t come without uppers, craftsmen, knowledge of herbal medicine and religious heads. In North America, the fishermen and navigators came first, then the rich folks and the farmers to settle the land. Explorers and craftsmen followed. The navigators brought the first priests, and other sects brought their own preachers. Many people came in groups with their religious heads, so that they would have freedom to practice their religions in a new country, which had few people compared to where they were coming from. The early European explorers in North America must also have understood the rudiments of astronomy, or else they would have become hopelessly lost…………which for the most part they didn’t.

The Windmill Hill people had well educated people among them, and quite possibly a well ordered culture, with its own laws and religion(s). They couldn’t have built what they did without some sort of hierarchy and a cooperative society which was willing to work on large construction projects, such as Windmill Hill, the West Kennet Long Barrow, Avebury, Silbury Hill, Stonehenge, and the list goes on and on. These people from the Neolithic seem primitive to us, but it was only their materials which were primitive, not their minds. The only difference between them and us, is all the creations and inventions we have today, 7000 years later. What we have today is a collection of the knowledge we have gained in that 7000 years. But in all that time our brain capacity hasn’t changed from theirs. They did things that we, with all our technical knowledge, have few answers for. How did they build the pyramids? How did they manage such big stones that we see in many different countries and continents? How did they haul them up mountainsides? How did they make the joints in between the stones so perfect that you can’t even stick a piece of paper in between them? To this day……………! At one time people knew how to do this, we don’t. It’s time we stopped thinking about these ancestors as half wild savages, running around in bits of animal pelts and grunting at each other.

One thing which seems to be missing, is writing, but this is because we’ve never found any of their writing. Or at least, we, haven’t recognized some of their ‘writing’. However, in many places such things as birch bark, hide, or a slab of wood could have been used to make notations on. In the UK and Ireland, they would have rotted long ago, so we think they had no writing. All their baskets and textiles have rotted also, but since basketry is one of mankind’s oldest crafts, we know they had them. The Queen Stone shows that some of them did use a form of writing. According to Barry Fell, an amulet with Ogham on it was found on Windmill Hill, it has been dated c3500-3400 BCE. When I did the layout for the Aubrey hole circle, I discovered the Forfeda. That was added last to the Ogham tract, and is connected to Manannan and his Crane Bag.

Manannan’s Crane was Cygnus. When it was no longer circumpolar, at lower latitudes, it became his dead crane, and out of the crane came the Crane Bag which held all his treasures. Manannan was an archetype of astronomer/sailor/merchant/shaman/priest/king, and his Crane Bag became some of the stone circles which were created. In Great Britain, many circles are surrounded by white, Stonehenge being only one example.  Although many triple circle formations are said to reflect Orion, I would say that it is Cygnus which is involved. Some are even on a cursus, perhaps meant to be the Milky Way. Some circles may also represent the egg which was laid by Thoth as the Ibis/Cygnus. Out of the egg came the sun god, Ra. Most stone circles do have solar alignments. The picture below comes from the Book of Lindisfarne, it’s the XPI page. The big X, the P and the I have been made to look like a big bird which is laying an egg with its wingtip on the Mound of Creation. This mound has the head of an ibis. I discovered that not all triskles were purely decorative, many made up other pictures, creating another layer of meaning.

When the picture is turned sideways, you can see a man’s head wearing a sort of turban with two long tails floating behind him. He has two pink eyes, round pink cheeks, and a beard which is flowing towards the right. This bird looks more like a swan, but here is Cygnus turning into a calendar circle with an astronomer, likely Manannan. I say, likely, because in the Book of Kells he has a red M on his forehead. I’ll have another write up about some of the interesting pictures in the Book of Kells and the Book of Lindisfarne at a later date.

This is where we seem to come upon a clue which shows us that there was more than one lot of people in the Isles early on. People who created their own mythologies later, but here we have Cygnus as a swan, the egg, and the ibis headed Mound of Creation, but also an astronomer. The legs or foundation this bird is standing on, is a staff with a hook in it and a straight staff. A pair of astronomy/surveying sighting devices. The gent’s beard is pointing towards a Sun symbol, the black dot with a circle around it.

The Irish mythologies do tell us that there were more than one group of people who migrated to Ireland. Among the ealiest were the Firbolg, who were the farmers. The Tuatha De Danann seem to have been the more educated, technically advanced ones. Nuada’s silver arm for instance, this could actually be the mention of a very early prosthesis. That’s not to say that the Firbolg didn’t have educated people among them, since they do seem to be the Windmill Hill people, but serious metal smithing doesn’t show up until quite some time after the Windmill Hill people arrived in England and Ireland.  All the different groups of people who went to Ireland, did so by sea, so they had astronomers and navigators among them.

The first Manannan was Little Manannan, son of the Sea, said to be a Druid of the Tuatha De Danann. Among the mythologies about the Druids, we find that they gained much of their knowledge from the Dodmen or Leymen as Alfred Watkins calls them. They were obviously astronomers and surveyors. Surveying is a child of astronomy. We can see this quite plainly with the Apollo/St. Michael Line as well as the St. Michael’s Ley, they both have astronomical connections. But just like snails, there were Dodmen who were terrestrial as well as aquatic. Some of them worked on land, while others were sailors. Ships also leave a white luminous trail in their wake. To follow either one of those lines from one end to the other, you would have to cross water along the way. If the St. Michael’s Ley did go all the way to Heligoland, they would have to go part of the way by water after Doggerland and Doggerbanks no longer existed. All the islands which are found on these lines of incidence, were once considered holy islands.

Corfu was originally called Korkyra. The god Poseidon fell in love with a water nymph named Korkyra. After abducting her, Poseidon took her to an unnamed island which he named Korkyra in her honour. Right away we find ourselves with a major god of the sea. To get from Mount Carmel to Corfu, you’d have to go by water. Delos was the island where Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo, and eventually it became sacred to Apollo. Mont St. Michel once had a shrine to Belenus long before the Benedictines built their monastery there. St. Michael’s Mount was named Dinsul or Citadel of the Sun. Locally it is still known as Karrek Loos y’n Coos, or Grey Rock in the Woods.

Cornish, Karrek=Welsh, Carreg=English, rock or stone

Cornish, Loos=Welsh, llwyd=English, grey or holy

Cornish or Welsh, y’n=English, in the

Cornish, Coos=Welsh, coad=English, wood, but Irish Gaelic, grove.

The word, llwyd, is another one like gwyn, in that it denotes colour as well as meaning holy. So this place may have been Holy Rock in the Woods or Grove. Llwyd is pronounced llue-id, connected to Llew/Lugh/Lug/Lugus, that’s why it means holy. This Cornish name is an example of amazing folk memory, since the forest that existed around St. Michael’s Mount has been under water since c1800 BCE. The Tin traders knew the area around Lands End as Belerion, which seems to connect it to Belenus. Since Belenus was a Sun god, and St. Michael’s Mount was known as the Citadel of the Sun, this seems quite logical.

Skellig Michel is connected to the Tuatha De Danann, and may possibly have been a Druid mystic’s retreat before it was given over to the Benedictines. Heligoland was originally, Heyligeland, or Holy Land, and was said to be the home of the god Forseti. Even when Doggerland was in existence, Heligoland would have been an unusual land formation. Geologically it was different from all the land around it, and was much higher than the rest. It may have been considered holy before Doggerland was flooded, but likely much more so after all the rest disappeared. Heligoland has amber, which seems to have become very popular in England. Archaeologists think that the first amber shipment which arrived in Mycenae c1700 BCE, came from England, because the spacer plates on the necklaces were the same as the ones in England, but they appear in England at least two hundred years before that.

                                                         

                  Heligoland and its famous landmark, Lange Anna, which is at the narrow point of the island

All this surveying and astronomy shows up in all other megalithic constructions, regardless of where in the world they appear. What isn’t clear, is how old some of those sites were, since it is quite possible that astronomy was practiced at some of them long before any major construction took place. Like at Stonehenge, where posts were placed on the Equinox line c7000 and c6000 BCE. More Equinox markers show up on the Aubrey hole circle which was contructed c3200-3100 BCE.  Station Stone 93 to F and Station Stone 94 to post hole C are also on the Equinox line, suggesting that astronomy was practiced there as far back as c7000 BCE at least.

Manannan kept his treasures in the Crane Bag. These are the Forfeda, the rolled up strip of the whale’s back, and all the other letters in the Ogham tract. The whale’s back is the line that all the other letters sit on, and is also the measuring cord.

The Forfeda come into the picture with the layout for the Aubrey hole circle. The first symbol of the Forfeda is X, and that’s what you get when you join Aubrey holes 56-28 and 14-42. These are the directional cross quarters, and so are X. My first move was X which stands for the Grove, the Sacred Place, all knowledge available past, present and future. The Aubrey hole circle being a calendar device, one can look back into the past as well as into the future, and tells you where you are at present. But if the Grove contained all knowledge available, then a great deal was taught there.

If you join  Aubrey holes 7, 21, 35 and 49, you get a square, and even though it does not sit exactly E/W, N/S, this does give you Oir or Tharan, the Spindle tree, the Square of Enlightenment. These holes became the corners of the the square which I used to string the Sarsen circle, the Trilithons and the Y and Z holes. Spindlewood was used for spindles (for spinning), bobbins and pegs. Surveying pegs?

My original suggestion for the Aubrey hole circle started with markers at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56. These would give you the quarters and cross quarters of the circle. After that, I found the two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines, which gives a lozenge with angles 100° and 80° as best as you can get on the Station Stone quadrangle. From this formation, I got marks at 5, 7, 21, 23, 33, 35, 49 and 51, which when connected created two more parallel lines crossing two parallel lines. When the distance between each set of Aubrey holes was divided in two, it established eight places on the Aubrey hole circle from which the distance between Aubrey holes could be calculated. These two parallel lines  crossing two parallel lines makes the symbol for Honeysuckle, the hidden secret. The Wessex lord’s large gold lozenge has angles of 100° and 80°, and it even has the symbol for the hidden secret in the centre of it.

Phagos, the Beech, the Hook was the astronomy/surveying device, and the Aubrey hole circle will give the cardinal directions, which will give you lines of longitude and latitude, which is the Net. Colin Murray calls the Net, the Sea, but it is sometimes referred to as the weave of Manannan’s shirt. The Sea is connected to the Moon, and represents maternal connections. Those maternal connections may have been to Hathor, since she was appealed to for good weather by sailors. The blue-stone was still being washed by mariners and fishermen on Fladda in the Hebrides up until fairly modern times. In Egypt, all blue stone was connected to Hathor. The goddess Inanna was very fond of Lapis Lazuli, she was Venus, but her father was Sin the Moon god.

By using the first three letters of the Forfeda, using Phagos, the Hook and the measuring cord, the strip of the whale’s back, they created the Aubrey hole circle, and lines of longitude and latitude were among the outcomes. By the time the Temple was built, they definitely knew the four cardinal directions. That line of light which shows up just before noon every day (if it’s sunny) sits N/S, and was obviously built into the place on purpose. A very mariner-like sighting line, since one of the main sightings of the Sun at sea, is taken at noon. In the Ogham tract I use, Phagos is symbolized by the Beech tree. Slabs of Beech were used to write on. Beech is used for bentwood furniture, a thin branch could be bent into a hook. It symbolizes old knowledge, old writing. How old?…………… that’s the question.

The Forfeda are supposed to have been added last, but if that started with the Aubrey hole circle, then the rest of the tract must have been in existence before that. Since they were also in the Crane Bag, they may represent the wooden pegs which were used in the surveying. However, it is believed that these letters may have their root in tally marks, which gives us merchants and sailors. The Stonehenge site can be ‘read’ using Ogham, which I found incredibly odd, but made sense. The letters in the Sator Square gave symbolic meanings of the letters, the Ogham wasn’t used to spell out words or to create sentences, they only gave symbolic meanings. What I am translating at Stonehenge also gives symbolic meanings, I haven’t tried to spell out words. The various elements of the site have numbers attached to them. One Altar stone, one Heel stone, so they are Birch because that’s the first letter in the tract and only has one line. Rowan is two, Willow is four, White Poplar is nineteen, etc.

The Aubrey hole circle will give you two divisions of seven and twenty one between the Station Stones. The seventh letter is Duir, the Oak, solid foundation, solid protection, the doorway to enlightenment/ the Mysteries. If you learned the Mysteries, you’d be enlightened. Among the Mysteries taught there was astronomy, higher mathematics, surveying, weights and measures, smithcraft, healing and navigation. Being able to navigate the seas in 3000 BCE would have been an important piece of knowledge. Oak has been used in ship building since ancient times, and would give a solid foundation and protection at sea. Druid is said to mean Oak priest, they were the doorways to enlightenment because they were the teachers, and they scattered acorns all around, who grew up to be more doorways to enlightenment. It still goes on today, we still have teachers and pupils. The difference being, that their knowledge was only available to a select few, while ours is available to everyone. No doubt, any child that showed any inclinations toward higher learning would have been taken into the group. Powdered Oak bark was used as a medicinal astringent for sore throats, burns and cuts. Used as a snuff, it will stop nose bleeds. The bark contains a high amount of tannin and was used to tan hides. Oak chips can be used to smoke meat, fish, fowl, cheese and other foods. Oak galls were used to make ink. Acorns can be mast for pigs, and properly prepared, can be ground into flour and acorn coffee. The Oak tree is sacred among many cultures.

The twenty first letter is the Grove, all knowledge available past, present and future. The Grove contained all the other plants, bushes and trees in the Ogham tract, all of which contain their own meanings and knowledge, so the Grove is a collection of all this knowledge. Almost all the trees, shrubs and plants have medicinal uses, but many have other uses as well, for making tool handles, spear shafts, spoons, spindles for spinning, buckets, furniture, building, etc. Many have blossoms attractive to bees, while others have fruit, nuts and other edible parts. If Stonehenge was the Grove, then there was quite a bit more going on there, besides training astronomers, surveyors and sailors. And burying the dead, which at the moment seems to be its main use according to Mike Parker-Pearson. Neil Oliver reinforced this idea on his BBC program, History of Ancient Britain, by walking around Stonehenge in the snow. What the ordinary viewer doesn’t know, is that England was much warmer then, they had no ice and snow. Saying that Stonehenge is nothing more than a Temple of Death, would be akin to archaeologist digging up Westminster Cathedral in five thousand years, and calling that a Temple of Death. After all, there are many people buried there, particularly the rich and famous. The people buried at Stonehenge were the rich and famous of their day, but that doesn’t make Stonehenge a Temple of Death anymore than Westminster Cathedral is now.

There are four Station Stones, the fourth letter is  Saille, the Willow. Colin Murray writes, “the passing of time is marked by both the rhythmic cycling of the Moon and Sun, together creating the pattern of the year, punctuated by nights and days”. The Station Stones were set up according to the maximums of both the Moon and the Sun. The Station Stones were used to create the lozenge, which was used to determine the distance between Aubrey holes. These were used as a calendar, which takes note of the passage of time, days and nights, and cycles of the Sun and Moon. They were also used for some interesting astronomy, independent of the Temple. The sighting lines pass by the Temple and were likely used before it was built as well as after. I have not come to a complete understanding of these as yet, will have to do more astronomy work, but I suspect that they have to do with eclipses. Willows like water, and their leaves and bark contain salicin which becomes salicylic acid when ingested. This is the same substance we find in aspirin. It was used in Sumer, Egypt, Greece, and in North America by the indigenous people. No doubt it was used by many ancient people, they just didn’t leave any documents saying so. Willow wood was used to make rope, paper, flutes, baskets, fish traps, wattle fencing, and a host of other things.

The Altar stone and the Heel stone are Beith, the Birch, since there is only one each of these. Birch shows the way, a new start, beginning. The Altar stone was a marker for the longest and shortest day. Because it has many mica flecks in it, it would be luminous just like the snails trail. This was the hub for the White Trail in the UK. This was the Temple of the astronomers, mathematicians, surveyors, mariners, healers, and oracles.

                                                                   Stonehenge at Night

The Heel stone or Freyja’s Road, marked the cycles of Venus and Jupiter, as seen in the conjunction with the Sun in 3133 BCE. It was a marker for the eclipses close to the Winter and Summer Solstices. An extract of birch bark can be used as a glue, or a dye. Birch bark can be used to write on, to make boxes and containers, and make a cast for a broken limb. It is first soaked in water, then wrapped around the affected limb, it hardens as it dries making a good cast. White birch sap can be used as a sweetener, and a tea made from the leaves was used to treat gout, rheumatism, arthritis, and can be used to disolve kidney stones. It also lowers blood cholesterol. The sap from birch can be used to make wine and beer, and the inner part of the bark can be eaten. Birch leaves give a yellow dye. Maypoles were traditionally made from birch……….birch leads the way. On the Isle of Man it was used for ritual birching once a year to drive out any evil intentions. It should be noted that these were evil intentions, not evil spirits. In North America, birch bark was used to make canoes and tepees, apart from smaller things such as boxes, baskets and other containers. Some of these were decorated with colourfully dyed porcupine quills  resembling embroidery.

Since there are five Trilithons, these are Nuin, the Ash, which is the Cosmic Ash, that which links together the microcosm and the macrocosm. The ground and the sky. Or our Earth as the microcosm and everything else in space, the macrocosm. There are five lintels on these, Ash again. Ash was used for axe handles, and handles for  other agricultural implements, because of the straight grain, it has ‘give’ meaning that it is somewhat elastic. Oars were also made from ash. From Colin Murray, “In Celtic cosmology in particular (the Ash) connects the three circles of existence-Abred, Gwynedd and Cuegant-which can variously be interpreted as past, present and future, or as confusion, balance and creative force; there being no hell, but only continual rebirth as passage from circle to circle until the Land of the Blessed is reached”. We come from the Great World which is Annwn, and live through everything, and come to know everything in the Little World-Abred. We will continue to move from Annwn to Abred to Annwn, etc, until we have become enlightened beings, at which point we move on to the Land of the Blessed or Gwynedd. Celts did not seem to think that we would attain Ceugant, only the Creater exists there. In other phylosophies this is called the Wheel, and again we will stay on the Wheel until we become enlightened beings. However, the earliest idea of a world tree comes from Egypt in the form of the Akhet and the palm tree. The symbol connected to the Akhet is two hills with the solar disc between them, which makes it astronomy again. This device of two hills with the solar disc between them was used as an astronomical marker at certain ancient sites such as Maese Howe, and can be seen on the chalk drums from Folkton which date c2300 BCE.

                                          The lions Aker and Ruti holding up the Akhet

There are ten uprights in the Horseshoe, which gives you Quert, the Apple, which is connected to the Celtic Apple Lands, or Avalon, and apples show a pentagram when cut widthways. The pentagram was sacred to the Druids, and one story will have it that they had pentagrams on the bottom of their footwear, leaving blessings wherever they walked. Apples are good to eat, are high in fibre and antioxidant compounds, and can be made into jam, jelly and cider. They can also be sliced and dried for longer storage. Apple wood was used to smoke meat, it gives a sweet flavour. Pigs, fattened in the fall with apples, will make very tasty pork. Thousands of pig bones were found close to Durrington Walls, they were about nine months old when butchered, and yet, their teeth were rotten. This shows that they were fattened on purpose, and likely did have a diet containing many apples, after all, they were in the Celtic Apple Lands. Seems there just may be something much more homely and down to earth about these Celtic Apple Lands. Apple trees are thought to have been the earliest domesticated fruit trees. They are part of several mythologies.

All together there are fifteen stones in this Horseshoe. The fifteenth letter is Ruis, the Elder, the end in the beginning and the beginning in the end, the Cauldron of Immortality. When you consider that the Sun rises NE and shines SW on the longest day, and does the reverse at Sunset on the shortest day, this end in the beginning and beginning in the end, makes much more sense. Medicinally, elder flowers are used for colds, sore throat, rheumatism and gout. An infusion of elder flowers can be used as an eyewash for conjunctivitis or as a compress for skin irritations and chilblains. Elder flowers can be dipped in batter, fried, then sprinkled with sugar and crushed nuts. Elder berries are used to make wine and cordials, and can be used to make violet or purple dyes. Elder leaves give nice green dyes.

Each Trilithon looks like the symbol for Luis, the Rowan, which gives protection against enchantment, control of all the senses, but is also connected to Runes, Rowan was used to cut Runes on. Long ago, Rowan was used for metal divining, just as Hazel is used for water. The Rowan helps you not to deviate from your path. It’s only Sunset of the shortest day which appears between the uprights of the Great Trilithon, no deviating there. This is true for the other sightings of Moon and Sun events which show between the Trilithons and the Sarsen circle. It is only from one spot within the Horseshoe where you will see them. For the shorter four Trilithons, each sighting spot is different, no room for deviating because the openings are so narrow. Rune stones were used as oracle stones, oracles tell you about the past, present and future. So would the Trilithons. The sightings between the Trilithons tells you what part of the year you are in, and shows two maximums of the rising and setting of the Moon, and one rising and two settings of the Sun. Eclipses of the Moon closest to Summer Solstice happen between the uprights of the Great Trilithon. Sirius appeared between this Trilithon the night before Winter Solstice c3000 BCE.

Rowan was used to cut Runes on, for metal divining, for wands, walking sticks and Druids’ staffs. The fruit can be made into jelly, jams, liqueurs, cordials, country wine, schnapps or Vogelbeer.  The fruit can be used as a mordant in vegetable dyes, and the leaves and fruit were used in divination insence. The blossom end of a Rowan berry looks like a small pentagram, a symbol of blessings and protection. Pieces of Rowan were kept on ships to avoid storms, kept in houses as protection against lightning, and over barn doors to protect the cattle from disease. The tree has a very long tradition in European folklore and mythology, it was considered a magical tree for protection against all nasty things in general.

When considered from a mariner’s point of view, control of all the senses was very important. Watching the sky and the water meant that you were looking for anything unusual happening there, so you would know what sort of weather to expect. ‘Feeling’ the ship was important as well, different vibrations of the ship tell you different things, such as a change in the currents. The Sun, Moon and stars were used to navigate by. Smells tell you when you are close to land, even when you can’t see the land, which means that you can start running into underwater rock formations in some cases. Sailing the oceans long ago was an endurance test. As a sailor you would have to be in good physical shape, be nimble and agile, and be able to ‘roll’ with the ship. You would need an even temperament, be patient, and be able to work as a team with the other occupants of the ship. Once you get out on the high seas, there is only the water, the sky, the ship and the crew, best if everyone gets along. All your senses would have to be fine tuned.

The Bluestone Horseshoe is Eadha, the White Poplar, letter number nineteen, which helps rebirth and prevents illness. This has to do with healing. In my area, the early settlers were taught by the indigenous people to make an ointment from Poplar. It was used to treat scrapes, cuts, bruises, burns, chapped hands and faces, skin infections, rheumatism and arthritis. The settlers called it Balm of Gilead, after the medication mentioned in the Bible. The buds are covered in a resinous matter, which may be separated by boiling them in water. This liquid can be used as a stimulant, tonic, diuretic and an antiscorbutic. A tincture can be used for complaints of the stomach, chest, kidneys, rheumatism and scurvy. Aspens and other Poplars contain salicylates, compounds related to aspirin. A herbal tea can be used to treat mild urinary tract inflammations. The Ojibwe used the inner bark of the trunk as a poultice, while the Cree ate the inner bark in the spring as a mild purgative. It was Poplar that was used by the ancient shield makers, and since the leaves rustle in the wind, it was regarded as that small still voice of God. The Poplar has three atributes: an ability to resist and shield; and association with speech and language; and a close relation with winds, which is important for sailing. Medications made from Poplar sound as if they would be a pretty good pick to take aboard a ship. Celts never swore an oath by any god or goddess’ name, they swore by the wind instead. The Romans and others found this odd, but the wind brought that still small voice of God, heard in the rustle of the Poplar leaves.

If the Bluestone circle did have sixty stones, then it could be three times Eadha with a dot between each set of nineteen. But no one seems to be too sure how many there were originally, could be 57. If there were sixty, then it could be three times Ioho, the Yew, which is the twentieth letter, and is connected to rebirth, everlasting, and reincarnation. Yew trees can live for thousands of years, and was the choice of ancient bow makers. Drugs to treat certain cancers are made from the leaves of European Yew trees. If the Bluestones represented the Primordial Waters, then we are back with the oceans of the World, since they are the Primordial waters. Ocean water, under certain conditions can also be a good healer, and it gives a variety of food.

Taking into account  those letters made up of lines only, that is, not including the Foreda, we end up with sixty lines, and as far as we know there were sixty stones making up the Sarsen circle, that’s uprights and lintels both. The lintels however, are the strip of the whale’s back, the uprights the letters, this makes thirty lines. The first five letters of the tract, or the B group as they are called, is the only part of the tract that actually looks like the Sarsen circle. This gives fifteen lines, and so the message could be read twice.

In the beginning (Beith/Birch); it was built for protection against enchantment, control of all the senses, and to help you not deviate from the true path……………..as in creating ley lines and mariners maps (Luis/Rowan); was oracular and protective (Fearn/Alder); was connected to the Sun and Moon making the pattern of the year, punctuated by days and nights (Saille/Willow) and was a link between the microcosm and the macrocosm (Nuin/Ash).

The enchantment it protected against were the Equinoxes. Stonehenge, from the time the Temple was built, was connected to the Solstices. For a temple of that age, Stonehenge is rather unusual, since most early temples in the Middle East were Equinoctial. Some of those temples were not as old as Stonehenge. Looking again at the story of Lugh and his wife Flower Face, I’d say that someone tried to make it Equinoctial. You’ll remember what happened to the Lugh hanging at Stonehenge on the Equinox, the beam of Sunrise hit him right in the thigh, and that is where Lugh was injured when his wife and her lover tried to kill him. (1) This wounding in the thigh runs through several mythologies. Once the Temple was built, it was definitely connected to the Solstices rather than the Equinoxes, otherwise the Thrilithon Horseshoe would have been turned so that Sunrise at the Equinox would shine right into it. There may have been a disagreement about this when it was built. The oracular part comes in because it foretold the movements of the Sun and Moon, and took into account the Eclipses. On the Gwyn Stone, with its double message, Stonehenge is the Ash tree in Avalon. Avalon being the Celtic Apple Lands with Glastonbury Tor at their centre. It was the Cosmic Ash, the link  between the Earth and everything else out in space.

There are different ways to combine the letters and still divide them ito 30. Beith/Birch plus Saille/Willow will tell their message six times. However, singly, only the letters consisting of 1, 2, 3, and 5 lines each can be read on the Sarsen circle, since only those numbers can be divided into 30, which leaves over all the letters consisting of 4 lines. There are four of these, giving 16 lines, that Mystery School number. Number 4 is connected to hidden secrets, I’ve found, the symbol for hidden secrets has four lines also. The trees are Willow, Hazel, Blackthorn and White Poplar. Willow is connected to the Station Stones, the layout for the Aubrey hole circle, the calendar and eclipses……..all secret. The Hazels of Wisdom is shorthand for all the knowledge the Druids had…….more secrets, accessible only to the chosen few. Blackthorn or Straif is connected to the English word, strife. It symbolizes perseverance in the face of difficulties. Obviously, the builders of Stonehenge must have had perseverance in the face of difficulties. Hauling huge stones from a great distance, and then erecting them wasn’t the easiest thing to do, in fact, we still do not know just exactly how they did this…………..more secrets.

The White Poplar is connected to healing, and long ago most of this information was known only by healers, and so falls in the category of secrets. Healing wasn’t secret because they didn’t want people to understand it, but because many of the plants, fungi and other ingredients in their medicines can be deadly if not used correctly. It isn’t known how old herbal medicine is, but it is known that Neanderthal  used herbal remedies. Most women would have known basic remedies, and techniques to deal with illness and injury, but the healers would have known all there was to know about this subject at the time. This was one subject which was passed on  from generation to generation, it was important to their society’s welfare.

Put all together, the above mentioned trees would give you many things. Wood for building ships, making tool handles, spear shafts, bows, shields, oars, buckets,  bobbins, spindles and pegs, furniture, barn and house building materials, staffs, wands, walking sticks,  flutes, baskets, rope, wattle, fish traps, fencing, writing materials, dock pilings (Alder), boxes, containers and a source of fuel for a fire to cook on and to keep warm by on a chilly day. Other parts of the trees give, fruit, nuts, jellies, jams, wine, beer, cider, cordials and liqueurs, mast, dyes, a mordant, tannin for leather making and medicinal ingredients. The bees are a bit invisible, but because many of these trees have blossoms, honeycomb would have been collected also. Amazing what a little Ogham will tell you.

Does Stonehenge have Ogham? Or is this just another coincidence?

Sources

For all properties, herbal medicines and practical uses for the trees mentioned:

Albert Jackson and David Day, “Collins, Good Wood Handbook”

E. J. Tangerman, “Whittling and Woodcarving”

Jim St. Claire, “The Oran Inverness”

Liz and Colin Murray, “The Celtic Tree Oracle”

Maude Grieve, “A Modern Herbal”

Richard Mabey, with Michael McIntyre, Pamela Michael, Gail Duff, John Steven, “The New Age Herbalist”

Wikipedia

Other Sources

Ancient-Wisdom.co.uk

Caitlin and John Matthews, “Encyclopaedia of Celtic Wisdom”

Charles Hapgood, ” Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings”

“Stonehenge and Avebury” official handbook from Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1959, updated 1970

“Y Geiriadur Mawr, The Complete Welsh-English, English Welsh Dictionary” H. Meurig Evans and W. O. Thomas

(1) see Part IV of Following the White Trail to Stonehenge

Pictures

Stonehenge, a drawing by Alan Sorrell, with a slight addition by J Rankin, from the official handbook, “Stonehenge and Avebury” from Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Antarctica, “Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings”, Charles Hapgood

XPI page from the Book of Lindisfarne, Wikipedia

Heligoland and Lange Anna, Wikipedia

Ogham tract by J Rankin

Stonehenge at Night, M. Dillon/CORBIS

Aker and Ruti with the Akhet, Wikipedia, The Akhet

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part IV

I’m kidding of course, about the snail’s head…………….sort of , but I don’t think he was included in the surveying, even though it fits nicely with everything else. This was the Dodmen’s Temple, and in England, a snail is sometimes referred to as a dodman. While watching a snail in his garden, Alfred Watkins wondered why they were called this. Then he noticed its antenna, which look like small sticks with balls on the ends.  And like all other antenna on animals, snails can move them around.  He realized that the ancient surveyors would have used staves for their surveying, and they would have been moving back and forth trying to get their sightings straight on. Their heads would have been the balls.

Snails are among the few species of animals which have both terrestrial and aquatic types. Snails also leave a luminous white trail. When the ancient surveyors created their track ways, they included flash ponds and beacon points along the way, making them luminous at night. The Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone likely had torches in some of the grooves at night, making it a beacon after dark. The Altar stone may have symbolized the start of this luminous trail.

Snails seem to have played a bigger part in people’s lives in ancient times, and not just to eat. They were used for jewellery, decoration on clothing and baskets, certain types were used for dyes, and likely for many other things as well. Such as ‘beaded’ curtains to go over doorways or windows. They give privacy while helping to keep out the insects and allowing in the fresh air.

The Aztec Moon god was, Tecciztecatl, and he had a snail’s shell on his back. Among the Aztec, snails were connected to the Moon and rebirth. But at Chichen Itza, there is El Caracol, The Snail. This very impressive tower was used as an observatory. The windows in it were used to observe the Equinoxes and the Summer Solstice. In Mesoamerica, there is also Viracocha, the Staff God, another astronomer/surveyor.

The Welsh word for a snail is, malwoden. That definitely caught my eye in the dictionary. Investigating a bit, I found that an obsolete meaning for, mal; it means, as or like. So, As Woden or Like Woden? No, woden, in the Welsh dictionary though. A modern meaning for, mal, is a mill. Isn’t there a saying, “The mill of time grinds fine”? If it was As or Like Woden, then it just means that its shell goes round and round just as the Sun seems to do to the Earth. The mill of time can also refer to the Precession of the Equinoxes, which also go round and round, only over a much longer period of time.

The 72 years which were being kept track of at Stonehenge had to do with precession. It takes 2150 years to pass from one sign of the Zodiac to another. When the original part of Stonehenge was built, the Sun rose in Taurus on  the Vernal or Spring Equinox, and all the other important days of the eight divisions of the year had their own sign in which the Sun rose. When Taurus gave way to Aries, all the other divisions of the year also shifted into a different sign. This shifting from one sign to another has always been viewed as a time of chaos, because suddenly all the seasonal sky formations were different. The most important were the two Solstices and the two Equinoxes. The Constellations the Sun rose in at those times were thought of as the Four Pillars of the Earth. When things moved from one sign to the other, the Pillars were thought of as collapsing, and a whole new framework would have to be constructed. The framework being the four new Constellations.

So the snail is not quite so silly after all, and is connected to astronomy. In the picture below, you can see how one looks all stretched out, the back-end of the body is narrower than the front. The Sarsen Circle sits right in the middle of the Station Stone quadrangle, which is narrower on the opposite side from where I drew his head.

                                             

           

The stringing on the diagram above may look a little over the top, but looking at the Dulcert Portolano, a map dating to 1339, I can see that this was used as a mapping device. Most of the old portolanos were constructed using much older maps. The Piri Re’is Map dates 1513 and shows Antarctica. The World Map made by Orontius Finaeus, dated 1531, shows all of Antarctica, and a great deal of it was shown without ice. The coast is shown as ice-free, and there are mountain ranges and rivers shown open to the ocean. This hasn’t occurred for thousands of years, and yet this map is fairly accurate according to modern scientific study, and must have been mapped by someone when it was in this condition. The Antarctic wasn’t discovered by modern mariners until 1820. The Piri Re’is Map shows all of South America in 1513, but Francisco Pizarro only went from Panama to Peru in 1530, and the Spanish never explored south or further inland for quite some time after. All of which goes to show that there were people sailing the oceans a very long time ago. At the moment, who they were is a mystery, but they do seem to have passed on their knowledge, since such details still show up in the 1500’s.

There is a theory about Earth crust displacement, which suggests that the Earth’s crust ‘slipped’ south, and that Antarctica, which seems to have had a temperate climate at one time, was displaced south by 2000  miles or 30° of arc. Everything else was displaced also, Europe would have slipped south and Alaska north. It’s known that Alaska and other places on Earth which are the frozen north now, where in a temperate zone, while a great deal of our current temperate zones were under ice. This sudden displacement may have caused the end of the last Ice Age, c11,000 BCE. There would have been massive flooding after, volcanos erupting and violent earthquakes. The land, freed from the heavy burden of ice, would have rebounded and heaved upwards causing more earthquakes, volcanos erupting and flooding.

These disruptive events may have continued intermittently for several thousand years, as the land settled into its new position. Doggerland started to sink lower and some flooding occurred, starting c6500 BCE. The Storrega Slide off the coast of Norway caused huge tsunami waves which flooded  large portions of Doggerland c6200 BCE. Only the area now known as Doggerbanks would have been left, and that would have been cut off both from England and the Continent. Within a thousand years Doggerbanks was totally flooded, and nothing remains of that very large piece of land, only Heligoland, the North Sea and the English Channel are there now. At one time this area may have been Europe’s richest hunting ground, many animals roamed this area. There were also marshes filled with all sorts of birds. People had settlements there, and likely many died in the tsunami. 

 It is in the period, starting c11,000 BCE, that mass extinctions of many animals occurred, and an almost mass extinction of mankind also. If there were already high civilizations before this episode, they were likely  wiped off the map, and mankind went back to a much reduced  way of living. But among the survivors, there must still have been mariners, astronomers, surveyors, architects, mathematicians, healers and other well-educated people, who continued to pass on their knowledge. The sky would have seemed in total chaos, absolutely nothing would have looked the same up there. Observations would have had to be made from scratch again. Just as mankind had to start from scratch again. 

We hear echos of those times in ancient legends which exist among all people on Earth. We also hear about The First Time, The Golden Age, when gods trod the Earth. But they were not gods, only survivors of a much higher civilization that once existed, possibly on Antarctica. In Egypt these people were known as the Neteru, they brought agriculture, animal husbandry, mathematics, writing, astronomy, healing and all higher learning. It took some time for everything to get rolling again, but once it did, sophisticated civilizations suddenly appear. As if by magic, mankind went from Stone Age hunters, gatherers and homestead type farmers, to building cities including houses, temples and palaces, filled with rulers, priests and priestesses. There was suddenly all types of art, writing, religions complete with a pantheon of gods, and a keen knowledge of mathematics, surveying and astronomy.

Returning to the diagram above, this Square of Enlightenment has 28 lines coming from each one of the corner posts, and going to 28 separate Aubrey holes. Even the Y and Z holes look as if they were laid out by these lines. The only place on this whole net where you can construct an equal angled octagon is around the Sarsen Circle. The other two eight sided figures are no longer true octagons, and don’t sit at line conjunctions very well, whereas the true octagon does, and so does Lugh. Any stringing mistakes are mine, not their’s. The ratio between the side of the square, and the long side of the larger rectangle, is the same ratio between an Egyptian royal cubit and a common cubit. This is really not that surprising, since a great deal of Egyptian mathematics has been found there. “The Stonehenge Codes”, by D. P. Gregg deals with this in great detail.

Since this is a mapping device, and such detailed maps were usually only used by mariners in ancient and not so ancient times, it would seem that there is just a little more than a faint smell of salt water here. Stonehenge and Bluestonehenge are connected by the Avenue, and the Bluestones, which connects them to water and sailors. Even the way Lugh’s head was raised, is very much like hoisting a sail. Manannan was a sailor and merchant, so it shouldn’t be any surprise to find sea connections at Stonehenge. Ancient mariners were astronomers, that’s the way they made their way around at sea. Mariners also used to take sightings of the Sun’s position at noon, and at Stonehenge this sighting was done with the line of light which appears on the ground between Sarsen 11 and Trilithon 53-54 just before noon, not only giving them the time of day, but also giving them longitude, since the line of light sits N/S. The builders of Stonehenge were full of little tricks.

Although Lugh has the correct angles I found for him originally, one of his legs doesn’t quite make it to one of the Trilithons. However, the Trilithons were set up to correspond to major events of the Sun and Moon as seen from within the space of the Trilithon Horseshoe, and through the openings between the uprights of the Trilithons, and the openings between the Sarsen uprights in the circle. The Great Trilithon may have had a space of three feet between the uprights, but the other Trilithons only have 12-16 inches of space between the uprights. This narrowed the view considerably, and you would have to stand in one spot to see the Sun or Moon event through these openings. Each spot would have been different for each event, but because of the narrow opening, there would only be one place to stand for these sightings. One step ahead or one step back would take away the sighting.

The opening in the Great Trilithon is greater because the Summer Solstice Sunrise line does not correspond with the Winter Solstice Sunset line, although I am showing only one line. At Sunrise on the Summer Solstice, the Sun would cast the shadow of the Bluestone in front of the Great Trilithon through the opening. Winter Solstice Sunset appears between the Great Trilithon uprights, and the shadow of the Bluestone would be cast onto the Altar stone.

According to Gerald Hawkins, Winter Solstice Sunrise could be seen through the openings of Trilithon 51-52 and Sarsens 6-7. Summer Solstice Sunset could be seen through Trilithon 59-60 and Sarsens 23-24. Both maximums of the Summer Moonrise, that is the full Moon closest to Summer Solstice, could be seen through Trilithon 53-54, but the Minor position would show through Sarsens 9-10, while the Major position would show between Sarsens 8-9. On the other side, Midwinter Moonset could be seen through Trilithon 57-58. The Minor position through Sarsens 20-21, and the Major position through 21-22.

On the above diagram, are two more reasons why I think he is meant to be Lugh, at least at some point in time. The Winter Solstice Sunrise would have thrown a beam of light on his ankle. Lugh/Lugus was very popular among shoemakers, he was considered their patron. Among the Celtic artifacts, there appear ankle length pottery and metal boots. They have always been found singly and never  in pairs. They’re Lugh Shoes.

The Equinox Sunrise beam would hit him in the thigh. Lugh/Llue’s wife, Blodeuedd, and her lover Goronwy conspired to kill him. The only way he could be killed was if he had one foot on the back of a goat, and one foot on the edge of a bath tub. The spear to kill him had to have taken a year to make. Eventually they meet all the conditions and attacked Lugh/Llue, he was injured but not killed, instead he flew up into the air as an eagle. On Equinox Sunrise the shadow of one foot would be thrown onto the Trilithon, the goat, and the shadow of his other foot would appear on the Bluestones, the tub of water. The spear was the shaft of light, and since Blodeuedd is connected to Spring, this would make it the Spring Equinox Sunrise. This story may be connected to something which happened at Stonehenge when the Temple was being built. Someone may have wanted it to be Equinoctial rather than Solstitial. Obviously they didn’t get their way.

After stringing all their lines, they would have put small stakes at the corners of the octagon, and possibly at the corners of the smaller eight sided figure. Stakes would have marked the top point of Lugh’s  head, and at the angles of his hands and feet. All the Y and Z holes would have been staked also. They then took away all their lines except the red quarter and cross quarter  lines. A line would then have been strung between the stakes of the octagon and the other eight sided figure. Lugh and the Y and Z holes would just be left as stakes, no stringing required there.

In the following diagram, the red lines are the quarter and cross quarter lines. I then put in the black lines, two Aubrey holes away from each red line. Then I put in the blue lines, which sit half way between two black lines, and not on any Aubrey holes. This divides the circle into 32 pieces, and not all the angles are the same, some are larger than others. However, as can be seen, many of the lines are placed along the sides of Sarsen uprights, making me think they must have used this method to place them.

 

I came upon the idea for stringing the Temple after playing with a picture of Thoth. Zecharia Sitchin called this Thoth as the Winged Measurer, but I call it Thoth with the Winged Measurer. It’s the snake that has the wings. A snake can move straight or in a zig zag, and when it rests, it coils up. The measuring cord can be used straight or in a zig zag, and when you are done with it, you would coil it up. It has wings because you can take it anywhere, even across an ocean. Many snakes in Egyptian art symbolize the measuring cord, just another version of the strip of the whale’s back.

     

  

 

On the Gundestrup cauldron, the measuring cord is a ram horned snake. Cernunnos has one in his hand. The ram’s horns are connected to the age of Aries, and the bull in the bottom of the cauldron is connected to Taurus. The panels of the Gundestrup cauldron tell a story about astronomy and the calendar at a time when one Zodiac sign was close to changing from Taurus to Aries. Taurus is still alive though, and Aries is not yet in command. Manannan doesn’t seem to have been part of the Celtic mythologies in Continental Europe where the cauldron was made, so no strip of the whale’s back appears, but there is a whale in the panel of Cernunnos. Someone is riding on its back, and this little picture has always been a mystery, but it likely refers back to Manannan.

Everything I have discovered at Stonehenge, started with the Queen/Quin/Gwyn stone, and Wodin upside down on the Ash tree. After that, Thoth took a hand. In ancient times it was believed that if you asked Thoth for help, he would help you. When I was trying to draw the Trilithon Horseshoe with Lugh hanging there, I had a very frustrating time trying to get the perspective correct. Since I had been reading about Thoth at the time, I thought, “Well, Thoth old boy, if you’re still around, I could sure use a hand with this”. Half an hour later, I had the drawing done, without once having to change a line or erase anything, so I guess, Thoth gave me a hand, and has continued to do so. Not long after playing with the above picture, I discovered that I am now Ophiuchus and not Sagittarius any longer. Ophiuchus is the Snake Holder, which had me laughing quite hysterically, and yet……………it felt like a stamp of approval, as if Thoth had taken me under his wing.

Sources

Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”

Arthur Cotterell, “The Encyclopedia of Mythology”

Caytlin and John Matthews, “Encyclopaedia of Celtic Wisdom”

Charles Hapgood, “The Path of the Pole”

Charles Hapgood, “Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings”

Fernand Neil, “The Mysteries of Stonehenge”

Gerald S Hawkins and John B White, “Stonehenge Decoded”

Graham Hancock, “Fingerprints of the Gods”

Y Geiriadur Mawr, The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary

Zecharia Sitchin, “When Time Began”

Photograph of the snail, dmhlondon.com/2008/07/give-snails-a-chance/

Thoth with the Winged Measurer, “When Time Began”, Zecharia Sitchin

Groundplan for Stonehenge, Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Building and Works, England

Groundplan of the Sarsen Circle, “Stonehenge Decoded”, Gerald S Hawkins and John B White

Dulcert Portolano, Wikipedia