The Amazing Book of Kells II

The Chi Rho or XPI page

Since it has been raining here for several days, I’ve had some spare time to assemble the pictures I wanted to use for this post. I’ve taken an interest in Celtic art for some time, I always found it intriguing. After some time, I realized that there were heads and faces in many of the designs. Not only the ones which are obvious but others as well, often made up of triskles or other  swirling designs. The theme of double heads is seen often. Sometimes it’s one head, but if you turn it over, it becomes a different head. Sometimes it’s two men. Sometimes a man and a woman. The two men are the Summer and Winter lords, the man and woman the goddess and her consort.

At the very end of a Celtic art book named Celtic Art by Ruth and Vincent Megaw, there is a picture of the Chi Rho or XPI page in the Book of Kells, and I wondered if Lugh/Cernunnos, or Summer lord -Winter lord had made it to the monasteries. I have a colour copy in a book named The Book of Kells, text by Sir Edward Sullivan. A reproduction of the 1920 version. However, I found a clearer picture on-line. This book has been connected to St. Columba, but it has never been proved. He is said to have worked in a scriptorium in a monastery in Ireland, and that there was a dispute about a manuscript Columba borrowed and copied. Apparently hostilities broke out and several people were killed, resulting in Columba’s exile to Iona.

However, the experts say this book dates about 800 CE, and St. Columba died in 597 CE. I don’t know who created this page, but he knew Ogham and all its meanings, and I think he may have left us a picture of a real Druid. St. Columba was from the Druid tradition, that’s why he is called a Crane Cleric. The crane being Cygnus, and connected to Manannan and his Crane Bag in which he kept his treasures. The treasures being the Ogham tract, including the vowels, consonants and diphthongs, plus the rolled up strip of the Whale’s back. The beginning of Columba’s name is Col. Coll is the Hazel, the Hazels of Wisdom.

The early Church in the UK and Ireland was the Culdee Church. It believed in God, Jesus, Mary, John the Baptist, and followed the Apostles. At the same time they still kept to their old Druid traditions. Most of the men and women connected to the early Culdee Church came from Druid backgrounds, and were already educated in their own traditions before entering a hermitage or monastery. These monasteries had both men and women, and both could become scholars. There was equal rights among them, they could even marry and have children. The earliest Christian writings in the Culdee Church were on Ogham sticks using Ogham, and later on velum and written in Greek. The Druids used Greek also, and Iona was once a Druid mystics’ retreat.

No one has ever disputed that this is the most marvelous page. Everyone is taken by the knot work, triskles, circles, etc. but no one has ever described the following, as far as I know, because no one knew that it was there. I have seen many of the formations before, but didn’t know their significance until now. According to the art book, this page is supposed to say XP, the first two letters of the Greek word Christos. But this artist actually has spelled the word Christos and quite a bit more. According to my Book of Kells, it says XPI, short for the Latin Christes. But this artist used Greek, he used it on another page also. The Druids spoke Greek long before Latin ever came to the British Isles, and I’d say this person came from the Druid tradition even if it was in 800 CE.

The basic layout for this page is  similar to the XPI page from the Lindisfarne Gospels. We have the big X looking very bird-like, which is meant to be Cygnus, The Swan. Two arms of the X become a turban on an astronomer/astrologer or Druid. I say astronomer and astrologer because he is wearing the propheta head-gear.(1)  On this page the legs of the bird are a straight staff joined to a staff with a curl in it, and a shape like a backward L. Both pages are very beautiful, but the one from Kells has a great deal more detail, and the hidden Ogham, which the one from Lindisfarne doesn’t have, although it does have small hidden pictures.

The first thing you notice on this page is the big X. It has the lozenge or diamond of the ‘hidden secret’ symbol in the centre of it. The angles of the smallest lozenge or diamond are 60°  and 120°. Two equilateral triangles back to back. I call this the Double Godhead, because of all the double faces in Celtic art which are usually, but not always, two men. These are the Summer lord and the Winter lord, the two halves of the year, the dark half and the light half. In fact, the artist has gone out of his way to embellish this lozenge with knot work and four men entangled in the knotwork. They represent the four major divisions of the year, the Equinoxes and the Solstices. The whole thing becomes a much bigger diamond shape. Some time ago I discovered that the number four is connected to this shape and the ‘hidden secret’. Here as well. The artist has hidden four letters in the X and has applied Ogham meanings to them. The letters are C, H Ss, and T. Ss because he has used it twice to spell Christos, but it has meaning in Ogham as well. The statement, which St. Columba is said to have made about Jesus being his Druid becomes even clearer on this page. The C is the first letter in Christos but is also the ‘turban’ on what I have been calling a Druid.

The C is the two right arms of the X. C is for Coll, the Hazel, the Hazels of Wisdom which is another way of saying Druid knowledge. Jesus is said to have studied with the priests in Egypt. When he was only young, he was debating with the rabbis at Temple. Well educated even by then, and he was a great orator.

The H is right in the middle of the big X, and is comprised of the diamond and part of the four legs of the X. Right up to where the dark squares with the flowers in them are on the two left legs, but not including them. The flowers are wild Asters in the dark squares, it represents the time after September 21, the start of the dark half of the year. On the long leg of the big X, the light grey square is April, and the rings are May, June, July, August and September. In this case the dark square with the Asters is October, the next ring down is November and the point is December. Church tradition has Jesus born in December. The centre diamond is January, the darker border around it is February, and the part with the gold knot work is March.

The H is for Huathe, the Hawthorn. Its month is April, and that is when Easter usually falls. It is also the month which starts the light half of the year after the Spring Equinox. The first festival in the light half of the year is May 1, when we get Maypoles traditionally decorated with Hawthorn flowers. Garlands were also made with these to decorate the houses. Joseph of Arimathea planted a Hawthorn staff at Glastonbury Tor, it grew and flowered. This letter is connected with a period of waiting, restraint and chastity. Jesus spent forty days in the wilderness before his last visit to Jerusalem.

The Ss is an S used twice. The top part starts on the left hand top part of the X, moves through the diamond and ends with the bottom part of the C. Ss is for Straif, the Blackthorn. The English word, strife, comes from this. It has to do with overcoming great odds with optimism, bringing balance out of chaos…………………much can be said about this in connection with Jesus. You can fill in all your own blanks, since this topic could go on for pages.

The T is the top of the S, the top of the C and the long leg heading for the bottom left hand side of the page. T is for Tinne, the Holly, which became the Holy Tree because people associated the Holly leaves with the Crown of Thorns. But that isn’t correct. It is the Holy Tree because the cross Christ was nailed to was T-shaped. The Roman’s used a T-shaped device for crucifixion, not the Christian cross we see now. This monk knew that.

Holly is said to be best in the fight, not only spiritual but because spear shafts were made from Holly, and the most important thing about throwing a spear is balance. So it also speaks of equilibrium, and the spear which pierced Christ’s side, but it also speaks of all the other spear imaging we see with Lugh, Wodin and many other Sun gods. Holly is also a symbol of fertility, and here the long point of the T is placing an egg on the Mound of Creation which, as in the book from Lindisfarne, has the head of an ibis. This is that wee story: Thoth as the Ibis laid an egg on the Mound of Creation, which was Hathor as the Milky Way. From the egg, Ra, the Sun god was born. Thoth as the Ibis is Cygnus, which sits on the Milky Way.

The O, I and R are at the bottom of the page. What is usually referred to as P is actually a glyph, making up P (for the casual observer), R and O. In very old manuscripts P was often written more like a B. But the monk has used a wake up device here to alert you to the hidden depths. Not only do the letters O, I, R belong to the word Christos, but it is also the name of an Ogham letter, Oir or the Spindle tree, whose symbol in the Ogham tract is a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. I call this the Square of Enlightenment. The O is shaped like a stepped square and is holding together the two legs of the R, showing that these two belong together. The I is the shape which looks like a backward L. 

For O he has used Oir, the Spindle. It is connected to that sudden flash of insight and lightning. In fact, it was the clue to this glyph. He has made it stepped and yellow, suggestive of lightning. This is also the shape of the Andean Cross which is symbolic of the Southern Cross. This constellation was used by mariners, as was the Northern Cross which is Cygnus.  Spindle wood was made into spindles, bobbins and pegs. In this picture he has pegged the two legs of the R together with it. A joiner or carpenter, which is what Jesus was.  He is also connected to enlightenment. Although Jesus was not born on December 25, we celebrate his birth at this time of year because people continued to celebrate this time of the year. In England it was referred to as Yule, and it was to welcome the Holly Lord, who long ago was Cernunnos. We still refer to this time of year as The Coming of the Light. Today it has a multi-layered meaning which comes to us from the time when people first took note of this return of longer days. A tradition which has endured over many thousands of years.

The R is made up of two elements, but the monk has shown us that they belong together by joining them at the bottom with Oir. R is Ruis, the Elder, the end in the beginning and the beginning in the end, the Cauldron of Immortality. The two elements which make up the R are what looks like a P and an I. The P is Phagos, the Hook, old knowledge, old writing, and also a star watching – surveying instrument. The I is the measuring rod and is also a Rodman or Dodman. If both of these were astronomy and surveying devices, then it speaks of the Star of Bethlehem also.

The measuring rod is straight until it gets to the top where it becomes more circular in the space between the bottom of C and the top of P. There’s a face there made up of circles and triskles. He uses them in all his half hidden meanings. The head seems to be covered by a hood, and from the top of it there are two long antennas with balls on the ends. The right one sits over the I, and the left one becomes part of a torque sitting under the chin of another face made of  more circles and triskles and bird shapes. This face is Cernunnos. He has two horns on his head, and Cernunnos was often shown wearing a torque. I’ll come back to him, but first look at the I which looks like a backward L.

The I is Ioho, the Yew, which stands for rebirth, everlasting and reincarnation. According to my Ogham book, the Island of Iona first started off as Ioho or Ioha, but that there was an error in transcription made in the fifth century, and it became Iona instead. This island is connected to reincarnation. Jesus is the new Cauldron of Immortality, symbolized by the Holy Grail, and he is connected to rebirth and everlasting.  The early Church still believed in reincarnation, but I don’t think they do anymore. The, I, the monk has made is shaped like a carpenter’s square.

Below are examples of two types of bird shapes this monk used in his decorations.

The monk also has many things made up of circles, triskles and other bird shapes, one of those things is ibis heads. On Thoth, it has  the long curved bill. There is one under the top curve of the S. There’s a big ibis head close to the two angels, there’s wonderful knotwork inside of the head.. She has her beak curved around a circle, which I’ll call an egg, which has three small flying cranes inside it.

There is another ibis head close to the bottom of T, it’s sort of lying down. It also has its beak around an egg containing more small cranes. The two eggs they are holding have cranes at a different stage of development inside them. I say cranes because the bill is straight and long. These two heads are part of the Mound of Creation where there is another egg being deposited by the wingtip of Cygnus. This egg has yellow birds which are hardly developed and there is much more white in the egg. Here is that story about Ra again. Thoth as the Ibis (Cygnus) laid an egg on the Mound of Creation which was Hathor as the Milky Way. Ra, the Sun god, was born of that egg.

In the bottom left hand corner detail we see a baby (red serpents) emerging from the womb (white serpents). This would be Jesus who the Church says was born at the end of December. The point of the letter T is the end of December.

The fat cats and the little rats seem quite cozy together. They’re the abbots and the monks who fell in line with them. They are nibbling on the Pearl of Wisdom, the knowledge they were gaining in the monastery. No doubt, a wee Celtic joke on this artist’s part. The corner detail of this page also implies that two ibis hatched new cranes together. They are also inside some of the other circles, and in some cases there is what looks like a bird flying toward or away from you.

On the left, Cernunnos has two cranes close to the top of his head, they make a sort of crown. There are two more on his cheekbones. He has two flying birds making up his nose, and two more holding the plumes of his headdress. Some of these flying birds are light like the crane and some are dark like the raven.

There are also heads of cattle there, also made up of circles, triskles and flying birds. One is between the angels. There are two more there making up the corners of the decoration around a circle with more cranes or ibis inside it. Unfortunately the outside one was cut off below the eyes. The one on the left is hanging off the Druids earring, close to the top of the I. This could be Taurus, or a connection to Bull El/ El Elyon, who was the god Enlil of the Sumerians. Elion is a Welsh name for God, it is still in the dictionary, although I’m told that it is seldom used.  It was Enlil who taught people to farm, he put them to work in the Garden of Eden. At one time, the oldest cult figures found were small stone bulls from Mureybet, home of Jasmine, whose descendents made their way to the UK and Ireland, and were found at Skara Brae in the Orkneys. As far as I know, Mureybet still stands as the oldest farming community  anywhere. The two cattle above could also be symbolic of Thoth and Hathor, both are shown with cattle horns, and both often have the Moon above their heads. Bulls, male goats, rams and harts or roebuck are all connected to ancient Sun gods. There was a great deal of cattle veneration in ancient times, from the Indus Valley to Ireland. Cattle are still sacred in India, and Celts loved owning large herds of cattle, which they often stole off one another. The Wessex lords are also believed to have been cattle barons, and my guess is that the folks at Ness Brodgar were also. There were a great many cattle bones found there.

I think the artist may have cartoonish representations of Bran and Branwen. They are the Raven and the White/ female Raven. He is at the bottom of Phagos, the Hook – old knowledge, old writing. She is at the bottom of the measuring rod which could also be a surveying staff. They both look as if they are wearing a red hat with white knot work. I hesitate to say Fez, but they do look like that. She has blonde curly hair, has two trinity knots on her face, and a light coloured bird on her forehead. She also has a baby bird close to her curls on one side of her head. This would be Gwern, her son. The baby bird is two triskles joined at two corners. Lugh, Apollo and Wodin were also connected to ravens. I read that the small animal above Bran’s head is meant to be a badger with a fish. The fish is symbolic of Christianity, and Jesus was a ‘fisher of men’. But Bran, who is much older, is believed to be the Fisher King. Like the Fisher King, Bran was wounded in a lower limb, a wound which never healed, since it brought about his death.

The X symbol for the sacred place is in the knot work between the leg of T and the R.  The big X makes the whole page the sacred place, but the area in which the blue X is, looks like the Station Stone quadrangle at Stonehenge, including the Temple in the middle, and the Station Stones at the ends of the X.

To me, one of the most marvelous things one the page is the Druid. The C of Christos now becomes the headdress on the Druid. He has two big circles for eyes which have trinity knots in them, and the bridge of his nose is made up of ibis. Two big ones and two small ones. The tip of his nose is below the small ones, and his nostrils flare out into circles. Below the nose he has a moustache which also flares out in circles. His mouth is below the moustache, and is made up partly by two cranes whose beaks run down into his beard. His beard is mostly curly but the centre bottom part is divided and turned into knot work, which has been made into three diamonds inside one another with two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines woven into the diamonds, and they make up the symbol for the hidden secret. There are three diamonds inside one another and then the parallel lines inside the smallest one. This is exactly like the design on the Wessex lords ‘breast plate’, which has four diamonds inside one another. The outside one contains triangles, and the centre one the two sets of parallel lines. (2)

There are three ibis above one of the Druid’s eyes. The red band below his turban looks  like an M when he is facing you, but looks like an E when the page is right side up. The artist could be suggesting that this is Manannan since the M shows up when he is facing you, but this is also the MEW3 device as you turn the page around. This device is symbolic of the four divisions of the year and also the four cardinal directions.

The headdress of the Druid is made of the letter C, Coll, the Hazel, the Hazels of Wisdom, that’s why I think he is a Druid. I think what he has on his head is a sort of turban with long tails flying behind, but they give the same impression as the headgear on the Hittite hieroglyph for propheta. (1)  A prophet in ancient times was usually an astrologer, hence an astronomer. Perhaps it was only a long piece of cloth, which is what most turbans are made up of. In this case it is embellished with the big diamond. The ‘breast plate’ found in the Bush Barrow (2) measures 71/2″ by 6 1/2″ according to Prehistoric England, but I’ve also seen 7″ by 6″. If you tied a scarf around your head and connected it with the gold ‘breast plate’, you would pretty much look like this Druid. You’ll have to add a beard, moustache and large round earrings, and don’t forget the braided effect in the beard.


The monk is there as well, above the Druid’s head. The end of the S is over his head, looking somewhat like the cowl on a monk’s habit, particularly if you put your fingers over the area I have painted in. He has a moustache and a little curly beard which is divided in two at the bottom. There are baby birds close along the edge of his hood. Sheltering Druid children up in Iona? His eyes are very prominent and he has used Bardic values here. The left eye has two which is duality and polarity, as above so below, which puts us back with astronomy and the calendar, but also has all sorts of esoteric meanings connected to it. Duality because he was mixing two separate traditions. This person was as much a Druid as a Christian monk. His right eye is the Trinity. Past, present and future, or chaos, balance and creative energy. Or Creator, Sky Father, Earth Mother. Or Kether, Chokma and Binah. Or Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Or all of those depending on his education. The egg is his brain or mind, it includes the crane.

It’s difficult to see what is in the circles, but the large one and the small one seem to have the same design as the two on the Druid’s forehead. The ibis is there making up the back of his skull and has an Ogham, the three short yellow lines. It says Holly, best in the fight, but he has it on the ibis, so he thinks his Druid knowledge is best in the fight. Or possibly he is referring to astronomy and Cygnus. Since the ibis is the back of his skull, perhaps he is saying it is bred in his bones. The S in this case was Ss for Straif, overcoming great odds with optimism, making balance out of chaos. Certainly sounds like St. Columba, I’m not surprised that he got on so well with the people up in Iona. Iona was a Druid mystic’s retreat long before Christianity.

The artist has used and shown the last five letters of the Ogham tract or Forfeda, among others. The two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines with the lozenge or diamond in the middle, which I call the hidden secret. The Hook, the X or sacred place, Oir is the square with its corners turned to the cardinal points, and the Net which is in the light grey squares which are part of the big X and represented April. It is connected to the Sea, the Moon and maternal connections. The symbol for the Net is usually three squares by three squares, although I have seen two by two, three by three and four by four. This monk used four by four, and if you put these four light grey  squares together you get a square of eight units by eight units, a Square of Hermes. However, a four by four square can be created with the sixteen wind system as shown below. (3) (4) This was used to create mariners maps.  The number four was sacred to Hermes. An eight by eight square gives you 64 small squares. 64 ÷ 4 = 16, that Mystery School number.

Knot work comes from Cording Lore which probably goes back to a time when people first had cording of some kind. Probably some bored soul on a rainy day with nothing better to do but make fancy patterns with his or her cording. Most of the patterns have names and meanings.  On the XPI page the cording is gold inside the big diamond, it’s the measuring cord or Whale’s Back which is the line all the Ogham symbols sit on.  He also has the measuring rod or surveying rod, the Hook which was a surveying or star watching device, a carpenter’s square, and the dividers which sit on the Druid’s nose and are made up by the beaks of the ibis.

When you turn the Druid upside down, the woven part of the beard now becomes a little man with big eyes, and he seems to have something long coming from the top of his head. Lugh- Cernunnos again. His head and arms rest on the curve. His ‘arms’ are actually two animal heads, one is a bird but I’m not sure of the other. Could be something doggie. Can’t see the detail well enough, but the whole thing does look like the Trilithon Horseshoe at Stonehenge.

I can’t see some of the smaller detail either, so he may have more messaging in that. However, I can see that some of the interlacing is made up of snakes, usually in pairs, and there are snails there also. Some are on the Druid’s face…….. think abstract. One of the more interesting snake configurations is at the bottom left hand corner. Two light coloured snakes and two red snakes both make a lozenge or diamond formation. Symbolic of the white and red serpent lines? If this is Jesus being born, then he would be of the red serpent line, or the Rose Line as it is sometimes referred to. Oddly enough, so were the Druids. The red dragon of Wales is still symbolic of the red serpent line.  The history of these two family lines comes from very ancient times and are connected to Ea/Enki and El/Enlil.

It is very interesting though that the monk shows both the ibis and the crane. Which makes me think there must be some connection there. It is very possible that their original knowledge came from Egypt. Thoth was the Ibis, and he certainly had all the attributes associated with Stonehenge. Astronomy, surveying, mathematics, writing, healing and equilibrium or balance. And a really interesting Wing String! (5)

Some of the elements of these manuscript pages, such as the humans, were considered rather childish, and everyone is still scratching their heads about the figure of St. John with hands for feet. (6) It takes a different way of seeing, and since most folk are so busy looking at the triskles, spirals and interlacing………..they don’t ‘see’. They can’t see the forest for the trees, and considering what is on this page, that’s incredibly funny. This is the most sophisticated use of Ogham that I have found so far, and likely there is more messaging in the smaller detail, it’s just too small for my eyes. A few days with the real page would likely clear that up, although it is not likely I’ll ever get to see it. I wish!

Most art lovers drool over this page, and most of them probably couldn’t put into words why they feel this way. Oh sure, we can all wax lyrical about the triskles, spirals and interlacing, but there is so much more there that we recognize somewhere deep inside us, subconsciously. Something our DNA recognizes, but out modern way of thinking has buried it for a long time.

It’s interesting to note that the knot work in the Druid’s beard makes the same formation as the Wessex lord’s ‘breast plate’ which has been dated c1900-1600 BCE. It was in a grave for at least two thousand years before this page was made. If you were to extend the net on the ‘breast plate’ it would give you the same formation in the Druid’s beard. The Wessex lord’s large gold lozenge may actually be a real Stonehenge artefact. The logo, if you like. And I think that originally came from the surveying for the Aubrey Holes. (7) I think that Julius Caesar may have had it correct, the Druids started in the UK and Ireland. When I started down the White Trail, I was not looking for Celts and their Druids, but ran into them just the same. The Wessex lord, from the Bush Barrow, with his interesting mace head was likely the Archdruid of his time, after all, his mace head is the original Druid’s Egg. Did he wear his gold lozenge on top of his turbaned head? A forerunner of the gold hats?

In my article Cygnus, Thoth, XPI and the Brodgar Complex, I showed how this page and the XPI page from Lindisfarne Gospels connected to the Orkneys with its ancient astronomers, surveyors and navigators.  Both Iona and Holy Island or Lindisfarne are sites belonging to the Cygnus that Derek Cunningham found on the landscape of Scotland. These two pages are a record of that ancient surveying, and tell us that it was the Orkneys which became the Mound of Creation. The place where astronomers, surveyors and navigators existed in ancient times.  Navigators because on the page from the Book of Kells, we find both Cygnus and the Southern Cross, both these constellations were used for navigation. What is really amazing is that all the ancient constructions on the Orkneys were created about three to four thousand years before these pages were made. If Derek Cunningham is correct with his dates for Cygnus being placed on the landscape of Scotland, then that was eight to ten thousand years before these pages were made. It’s obvious that there were still people connected to the early Church who knew about this history. And what about the Summer lord and Winter lord? which is what made me look at this page in the first place. They are there also. Lugh and Cernunnos.


The Book of Kells, described by Sir Edward Sullivan, however he writes nothing about what I have described

The Celtic Tree Oracle by Liz and Colin Murray

The Encyclopedia of Celtic Wisdom by Caitlin and John Matthews

(1) Cygnus, Thoth, XPI and the Brodgar Complex, by Joan Rankin

(2) The Bush Barrow Treasures, by Joan Rankin

(3) Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, by Charles Hapgood


(5) Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part IV by Joan Rankin

(6) The Amazing Book of Kells by Joan Rankin

(7) Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part I by Joan Rankin


XPI page from Wikipedia under The Book of Kells

Detail of the large diamond by Yetac

Forfeda by Joan Rankin

Mapping device from This was originally in Charles Hapgood’s book Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings.


The Queen Stone Near the River Wye


Reading the Ogham on the Queen Stone

Traditionally, these Ogham are read as if the top is the line which the letters sit on,  but this one has a double message, and uses the ground as the line also. The  compound message is very interesting. On the SW side there is one line, on the NW side three lines, on the NE side two lines, and on the SE side five lines. (1) Using those marks from the first two sections of the Ogham tract, gives you two words per side. I am giving the most basic meanings.  

One line is for Beith, the Birch and stands for a new start, beginning, it also leads the way.

One line is for Huathe, the Hawthorn or Whitethorn. This is connected to a period of waiting and restraint. 

If there was someone around to record the fact that the Birch tree was the first to grow after the last Ice Age, they would have had quite a wait before moving further inland to do anything. The last Ice Age didn’t cover all of England. The ice covered Ireland, the St. George’s Channel right down to the Scilly Islands, followed the west coast of southern England, cut across England north of the Bristol Channel, then more or less cut across the width of the country, passing slightly north of the Thames Estuary. That was as far south in England as the ice came during the last Ice Age, but it would be extremely cold, and when the ice melted it was very wet. Even Glastonbury Tor was surrounded by water and marsh. You wouldn’t be laying out Stonehenge at that point. However, St. Michael’s Mount is the axis point  for the St. Michael’s Ley and the St. Michael-Apollo line. If you were going to Ireland or the Continent from there, you may have had a period of waiting. Waiting for a seaworthy vessel to take you there.

Three  lines are for Fearn, the Alder, which is for oracles and protection. It is connected to Bran and his talking oracular head.

Three lines are for Tinne, the Holly, which means best in the fight and protection. The fight being both spiritual and physical. Spear shafts were often made from Holly.

Somewhere to the NW of the Queen Stone, there must have been an oracle centre. Perhaps the lady buried with the Mold Gold Cape was the oracle. The Cerne Abbas Giant has this same message on his ribs. Since his club points toward the Trendle, perhaps that was an oracle centre also. His club has three round knobs, the three planes of existence, past, present, and future. An oracle can be any type of divination. Card reading, tealeaf reading, astrology, crystal ball gazing, palm reading, Ogham stick or Rune stick reading, etc., and they all deal with your past, present and future. The oracle, King Gudea went to see, seemed more like an advisor, she interpreted his dreams and explained what they meant.  Some accounts make them seem more like the local psychologist/advisor. 

Two lines are for Luis,  the Rowan which symbolizes protection against enchantment, it was also used for metal divining and to cut Runes on.

Two lines are for Duir, the Oak, which represents the doorway to enlightenment/the mysteries, but also gives solid foundation and protection. 

If you learned the mysteries, you’d be enlightened. Since we see it here with something which was used for metal divining, perhaps there was a ‘school’ for metal smelting and smith craft to the NE. 

Five lines are for Nuin, the Ash. This is the Cosmic Ash, that which links the microcosm and macrocosm. The Earth is the microcosm and  everything else around it is the macrocosm.

Five lines are for Quert, the Apple, and is associated to the Celtic Apple lands, which is where Stonehenge and Glastonbury Tor are situated.

 It is sometimes thought that only the great hill at Glastonbury Tor was Avalon, but Glastonbury Tor is the Glass Castle which sits in the centre of the equal armed Celtic cross. Stonehenge is the city of the East position, the position of Air. It is said that Avalon was an orchard, and that Merlin could move it from place to place. The ‘orchard’ is the Grove or sacred place which contains all the trees, shrubs and plants of the Ogham tract, and as I’ve shown in previous writings, if you knew how to use a calendar circle, the sacred place, you could move it anywhere in the world. Since the Grove symbolizes all the knowledge contained in the tract, you would have a wide range of knowledge, enough to set up a well organized society anywhere you went. The Apple also represents a thing of beauty, and when you cut an apple width ways, you will see a pentagram made by the seed pockets.  Stonehenge was the Ash tree in Avalon, and a thing of beauty in its brand new state. Up until then, no one had ever seen anything like it, in fact, it has remained rather unique to this day.


(1)  “The Old Straight Track” by Alfred Watkins

“The Celtic Tree Oracle, a System of Divination”, by Liz and Colin Murray

Photograph Source

Alan J. Wood of Wyenot News

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part I

                                                         The Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone

                                            Solving  the Riddle of the 56 Aubrey Holes

 While reading about the history and building of Stonehenge, I was reminded of a book by Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”. I had read this book with fascination many years ago. I must give credit to Mr. Watkins for my interest in Stonehenge. Particularly his mention of the Queen Stone, which originally started life off as a Gwyn Stone. Alfred Watkins discovered that this stone was named the Quin Stone on old estate maps. Cornish, Quin = Welsh, Gwyn. He seemed rather puzzled about it being called that, since  it is reddish in colour. Gwyn means white in Welsh, but also, holy. That fact puzzled me for a time until I learned that the same element could be found in gwy as in dwy. Although in modern usage, dwy, means two, an obsolete meaning for dwy is God. Names like Gwydion and Gwion came immediately to mind. There are several other obsolete words beginning with dwy, such as, Godliness, Godly, divine, divinity, holy, Goddess, etc. That explained why Gwyn meant holy, but what had a red stone to do with white?

Mr. Watkins was also good enough to tell us what was cut on each of the four sides of this Gwyn Stone, which is situated on the horse shoe bend of the River Wye. The word, Wye, is also connected to dwy and gwy. Geologists will say that the grooves on this rock are from weathering, archaeologists will say that they were made by archers sharpening their arrows. Alfred Watkins felt that they were cut by the hand of man, these grooves end at ground level. If archers did sharpen their arrows there, they only kept the message in good shape, the weather would have helped as well. This rock is square, with its corners turned to the cardinal points, and its faces to the cross quarters. That alone would tell you which direction you were travelling in. These squares with their corners turned to the cardinal points are still used on maps today. The stone has grooves on all four sides. Each side has an Ogham message on it. But it was the message on the SE side that was most interesting. It was the clue to unravelling some of the puzzling things at Stonehenge.

While I was reading “The Old Straight Track”, I was also becoming acquainted with the Ogham tract. I use Coll Hazel’s Ogham. The last five letters of the tract are called the Forfeda, and I have seen various examples of this, and the meanings of several of the letters are often switched around. However, Colin Murray’s seem to be correct, because of several intriguing things I have found.

This is not your ordinary ABC alphabet. Instead, each letter has many symbolic meanings attached to it. It was a semi secret language used only by the elite and the Druids among the Celts. It has been suggested that the Druids brought it with them when they came from the Continent to Britain and Ireland. However, Julius Caesar did say that the Druids started in England and then went to Gaul.

According to Bryan Sykes, the earliest ‘Celtic’ or proto Celtic people were the Windmill Hill people. The majority of the Celtic DNA found in the UK and Ireland, has its roots on the Iberian Peninsula, and has a history in the male line going back to Cro-Magnon. This is under debate at the moment, with others theorizing that it only goes back to the Neolithic. However, among them was a small strand from the eastern Mediterranean, and also a small strand from north Africa. Their DNA is different from the later Celts found around Lake Neuchâtel and the Hallstatt area, from which we get La Tène artefacts. La Tène is not far from Italy’s northern border, fairly close to the territory where the Ligurians lived. In fact, it is only one degree north to Lake Neuchâtel from Picollo San Bernardo.

Even though there may have been thousands of years between the movement of the Windmill Hill people into the UK and Ireland, and the Celts who are said to have descended from the Milesians, their DNA is similar. Among male descendents of these people, the clan of Oisin is most prevalent. Out of eighty five men tested in Wales, ninety two percent came from the clan of Oisin. That was the highest percent anywhere, including the Iberian Peninsula.

There are others who believe that the Ogham tract was started by the Gnostic missionaries in Ireland, but since I have found an example of Ogham dating 79 AD at least, and the Gwyn Stone is believed to date back to the Bronze Age, I have to wonder about this story. No one really knows how old it is or where it actually started. There has been an Ogham found in Egypt in Ramses VI tomb. The date for his rule was 1160-1148 BCE. One of the things said about the Druids is that they gained their knowledge from the ancient Dodmen who were in the UK and Ireland. These were the ancient astronomer/surveyors who created some of the earliest trackways known as leys.

However, it is interesting to note that the first trees to start growing in England after the last Ice Age were:- birch, pine, lime, elm, ash, oak, alder, beech, maple, hornbeam (oak family), elder (honeysuckle family); shrubs, holly and hazel, plus ivy and mistletoe. Around 3500 BCE there was a decline in elm trees, and it is believed that Dutch Elm Disease may have been the cause. In the Ogham tract we find:- birch, fir/elm, ash, oak, alder, elder, beech, holly, hazel, ivy, mistletoe and honeysuckle. The mistletoe shares a spot with heather and the letter is named Ur in the Irish Gaelic. I found this interesting since there was a city in Sumer named Ur.

It has been argued that this arboreal version of the tract could not have started in the UK because there was no Silver Fir there, but Ailim/Ailm means elm in Gaelic, not Silver Fir. Alfred Watkins found rows of fir and pine close to ancient sighting points. Such as the Constable Firs, ancient Ogham messages planted on the landscape. Although he never mentions Ogham, his theory was that these trees would have been replanted if one died. I think the replanting of these trees became a tradition, even long after people didn’t know about the messaging, that’s why they are still there today. People are very attached to their traditions. There was always a fir tree there, and there will always be a fir tree there, even if they no longer understood why there was a fir tree there in the first place, but this must have been very important at one time, since it was carried on. Single trees were planted also, and very long lived specimens, such as oak or yew, were used for this. It is possible that elm was replaced by fir and pine after the decline in elm trees. Silver Fir, Scotch Pine and elm trees have one thing in common, they’re all very tall, and since this letter symbolizes high views and long sight, that does seem to be logical. Since Alfred Watkins found rows of fir or pine near ancient sighting points, the trees were sending the message, high views and long sight ahead.

According to Irish legends, the first twenty letters were created by Ogma, the God of Eloquence, and also a Sun god. The last five symbols represent diphthongs, and are said to have been created by Manannan, a god of the sea, who is also connected to the Moon. Birch is said to be the first letter, because it was the first tree to grow after the last Ice Age. Who recorded this fact? Beith is Irish Gaelic for birch, but it is also named for Noah’s son Beith/Bith/Beth, and stands for “a new start, beginning”. Beth is the second letter in the Hebrew alphabet, but the first in the Torah, which starts, “In the beginning……..”

The trunk of the birch is white and is said to “lead the way”. Easily seen from a distance, even on a Moonlit night. On the SW side of the Gwyn Stone is the symbol for Birch, and it points toward Lands End. It has already been found that St. Michael’s Mount in Cornwall figures in the St. Michael’s Ley, and is on the St. Michael-Apollo Line which runs from Mount Carmel to Skellig Michel in Ireland. These leys are now referred to as ‘lines of incidence’. From St. Michael’s Mount, one could make a new directional beginning. Northwest to Skellig Michel, southeast to Mont St. Michel in France, where you can follow the line through France, several places connected to St. Michael in Italy, then on to Dodona, Corfu, and eventually make your way to Mount Carmel. From St. Michael’s Mount, Cornwall, you can follow the St. Michael’s Ley northeast into England, where you will find some interesting megalithic constructions, such as the Hurlers, Glastonbury Tor, Avebury, Silbury Hill, Big Rings and Waulud’s Bank. It runs a great distance along the Ickneild Way, and meets up with the Ridgeway Path, a track that goes back to the Neolithic. Some of the ‘Roman’ roads may have been constructed over much older roads and trackways. In some places, archaeologists have found much older ‘paved’ roads below the Roman ones. The ancient surveyors may have been responsible for the straightness of these roads, not the Romans.

You could follow the St. Michael’s Ley all the way to Yarmouth, and after a short period of sailing, be over on Heligoland and northern Germany, and various other areas in Scandinavia. This line may be much older than anyone realizes, since Doggerland once existed between the east coast of England and the west coast of Denmark, Germany, Holland, Belgium and part of France. It’s quite possible that this line started on Doggerland, and entered England at Yarmouth. Yat is an old Saxon word for road, track or ley, as in Symond’s Yat, which is not far from the Gwyn Stone. Gate, is another form of yat, and there’s Gateshead close to the border of Scotland, the head of the yat. Yarmouth is on the River Yarre, so obviously these names are connected, but perhaps, yar, was another form of yat. It would be easier to say Yarmouth, than Yatmouth. Yatshead and Yatmouth don’t seen to fit the mouth at all, whereas Yarmouth and Gateshead seem to roll off the tongue much better. Archaeologists have found evidence that Mammoth were once hunted off the coast of Yarmouth, and during the last Ice Age, only the south of England was free of ice. Hunters and gatherers trekked trough this area for millenia.

On the SE side of the Gwyn Stone is the symbol for Ash. It points in the direction of Stonehenge. The Ash of the Ogham tract is the Cosmic Ash, that which links together the microcosm and the macrocosm. The microcosm being the Earth, and the macrocosm being everything else out in space. Considering that it was also a very accurate calendar, the name becomes even more appropriate. Below are the twenty five symbols of the Ogham tract. The line on which all the letters sit, is called the strip of the whale’s back, but symbolizes the horizon. And that’s of, not off. I believe that the strip of the whales back also symbolizes the measuring cord. The rolled up strip was kept in the Crane Bag along with Manannan’s treasures.


The first twenty letters always remind me of shadows cast by a pole standing in sunlight. The last five seemed as if they should belong to surveying. X marks the spot, and a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. We still use the last of these on maps. The third symbol is two parallel lines, crossed diagonally by two more parallel lines, creating a diamond shape in the centre. Surveying is done by triangulation. The Hook, which when seen on the side of a staff, looks more like an ancient surveying or star watching instrument. The hook usually represented is so turned in on itself, that I can’t imagine hooking anything with it. As a surveying instrument it would be quite handy. Not only could you use it to sight with, but you could also carry a line along with you. That would be very useful if you were ‘stretching a cord’ at Stonehenge. If you had a few of them, your line wouldn’t be dragging on the ground. After all, someone had to make it by hand. The last symbol in this group looks like a net made up of squares. This net is not always the same in various Ogham tracts. I have three by three, this is what Colin Murray used, but I have seen two by two and four by four also. A three by three grid was also an emblem among the ancient Mesopotamians. It was named Bab-Ilu, the Gate of God. A four by four grid would be one quarter of a Square of Hermes, which is eight by eight.

These five symbols, are said to be Manannan’s treasures, and he kept them in the Crane Bag along with the rolled up strip of the whale’s back and the rest of the letters of the tract. The Crane Bag was made out of the skin of a white Crane. When the tide was high, the bag seemed full, but when the tide was low it appeared to be flat.This is an allusion to the Moon, so his treasures were visible at the time of the full Moon, but not at the dark of the Moon. Crane knowledge is shorthand for Druidic knowledge. St. Columba was said to be a Crane cleric because he was brought up in the Druidic traditions and understood Ogham.

After doing some more reading, I became aware that the colour white was also attached to many ancient monuments in the UK and Ireland. The banks at Stonehenge, Avebury and several other sites are white. Newgrange and Knowth were surrounded by white quartz. At Thornborough, the top layer of the banks was white gypsum that had been brought from elsewhere. The West Kennet Long Barrow was white, as well as Silbury Hill. The Long Man of Wilmington, the Cerne Abbas Giant, the various large depictions of horses are all white. Bran’s head is said to be buried at Bryn Gwyn, the White Mount, where the Tower of London stands now. Perhaps that should be the Holy Mount? After all, Bran’s head was buried there. And the hill at Glastonbury Tor, was it also white at one time? This adornment with white can be found over on the Continent as well, mostly white quartz or limestone was used. Where there is white quartz, there could be gold.

I wondered about the white Crane, and found that among its allies are the Ibis and the Egret. All long-legged wading birds, which all have white varieties. The flight profile of the Ibis is much the same as that of the Crane. Some Ibis have a curved bill, but Storks, which are Wood Ibis, have a straight bill similar to the Crane. Was Manannan’s Crane somehow connected to the Ibis headed Thoth? He was the Egyptian god of writing, mathematics, astronomy, surveying, equilibrium and healing. Were the original surveyors in the British Isles, Thothmen? In Welsh, Thoth would be spelled Ddodd. Did it then become Dod later? The ancient surveyors in the UK and Ireland are still called the Dodmen. The Ibis and the Crane were connected I found, they are just another version of the Constellation Cygnus. Many different birds seem to be connected to this group of stars. Ibis, Crane, Swan, Vulture, Goose, Gannet, and other water fowl, but mostly white with a little black in most cases.

There’s an interesting story among the Irish legends concerning Fintan, the Ancient White One. Because he is the oldest shanachies/seanchais in the group, he is asked to relate the history of the people of Ireland. He says that he was born before the Flood, and that he was married to Cessair, Bith’s daughter. Bith was supposed to have been another son of Noah, who is not mentioned in the Bible, but who figures in Irish legends. When Cessair brought her people to Ireland, the Flood overtook them, and they all died except Fintan. He survived by turning himself into a salmon. The salmon in Celtic lore ate the Hazels of Wisdom, and so by saying he turned into a salmon, Fintan is actually saying that he used his knowledge to survive. He recounts the various things that befell successive peoples who came to Ireland, but every time he himself survives. Eventually someone mentions how lucky he was to survive all that, since several thousand years have gone by. Fintan, the Ancient White One, replies, “Someone always survives”.

This story seems to be telling us that the line of seanchais in Ireland go back to Sumeria. It is in Sumer where we find the oldest Flood stories. I don’t mean to imply that Druidism went that far back, only that there does seem to have been a core of knowledge which was passed on from one generation to the next, usually to the priestly class, which usually passed from fathers to sons and daughters also. Ancient kings and their family members were often the priests and priestesses, astronomers and oracles. I call this the White Trail, and since Sumer is where we find the oldest advanced civilization, it probably started there. Anu’s White Temple is at Uruk, one of the oldest temples in Sumer.

There is a connection between Sumer and the UK and Ireland. Among the Windmill Hill people there were descendents of a woman whom Bryan Sykes names ‘Jasmine’. She was found at Mureybet in present day Syria, fifty miles southeast of Aleppo in what archaeologists say is the oldest farming community that’s been found to date. It isn’t very far from Gobekli Tepe either, which is now thought to be the oldest ritual/settlement complex dating c9000 BCE. At Mureybet, the grain these people grew was still the same as the wild grains their seeds came from. A thousand years later at Jericho, people were growing genetically altered grain. Grown over centuries of selective harvesting and planting of grain.

At that time, Mureybet would have been in the area of what became Sumer. Jasmine lived there c8000 BCE. Her descendents have been found on both sides of the Mediterranean, up into continental Europe, came with the Windmill Hill people, and were also found at Skara Brae. The goddess Freyja of the Scandinavians is said to have her roots with the Sumerian goddess Inanna, whose main temple was also in Uruk, very close to Anu’s White Temple.

The question is, did Jasmine’s descendents trek across land for three thousand years, or is it possible that some of the Windmill Hill people had a closer connection to the Middle East when they landed in the UK and Ireland?

This does now seem to be the case. Bryan Sykes has shown that descendents of Jasmine may have travelled by water, and that they brought farming with them.

Bryan Sykes:

” The presence of large numbers of Jasmine’s Oceanic clan …. says to me that there was a very large-scale movement along the Atlantic seaboard north of Iberia, beginning as far back as the Neolithic and perhaps even before that. …….The mere presence of Oceanic Jasmines indicates that this was most definitely a family based settlement rather than the sort of male-led invasions of later millennia.”

Their movement seems to have occurred at about the same time as the Cardium Pottery people, who are also considered to have been the first farmers in Europe. Their oldest pottery found to date was in Corfu, c6500 BCE, after which they moved along the northern coast of the Mediterranean, and were into the Iberian Peninsula and France by c5500 BCE. Most of their movement along the northern coast of the Mediterranean occurred within a period of 500 years. It is believed that they moved in groups by water, and created new settlements along the coast. They were also the earliest farmers in these areas, and seem to have introduced farming to other people. It has been suggested by archaeologists and other experts, that these people were sent out in groups to settle new places. Who exactly sent them is a mystery. Their pottery has also been found in Iraq, Palestine and Jordan. The culture which started in Mureybet, spread out, also moving into Iraq, Palestine and Jordan. Their remains have also been found on Mount Carmel.

However Jasmine’s descendents came to be among those seafarers who arrived in England, they came from an old farming tradition. By the time the Cardium Pottery people arrived in France, there was already herding of domestic cattle there, introduced by an earlier group of genetically related people to Jasmine. J (Jasmine) and T (Tara) are the only two haplogroups connected to the spread of herding and crop growing, they migrated into Europe sometime between c8000-6000 BCE. These two groups have a common background in JT and pre-JT. The place of origin of J and T was in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent c43,000 BCE.

At Tumulus Mont St. Michel in France, c6850 BCE, someone’s cremated remains were placed in a stone cist, along with 28 Fibrolite and 11 Jadeite axe heads, a Turquoise necklace and one of Jasper. The cist sat E/W on the Equinox line. It was also surrounded by fifteen smaller cists containing ox bones. It was then covered over, creating a tumulus. Eventually it was greatly enlarged, and up until the nineteenth century, people still built a bonfire and danced up there on June 21st. Over time Tumulus Mont St. Michel went from being Equinoctial, to being important on the Summer Solstice. The earliest known mining of Turquoise was on the Sinai Peninsula by the Egyptians. Iran, Cornwall, Saxony and Silesia are also mentioned as having Turquoise, but how far back it was mined in these areas, I haven’t been able to discover, nor where the Turquoise came from in the necklace.

This tumulus is close to Mont St. Michel which is on the St. Michael-Apollo line. The line runs through Liguria on the northern coast of Italy. The stone for the hand axes buried in France, came from the Ligurian Alps, and in Liguria we find the same mix of people as on the Iberian Peninsula, and parts of France. These people had something in common with the Windmill Hill people, and the people of many other places where early farmers show up. They built megalithic constructions. On the Picollo San Bernardo we find a stone circle, and in the nearby Aosta Valley a megalithic complex has been discovered.

Although some of the earliest megalithic constructions in Europe have been found in Portugal and Ireland, it seems to have spread very rapidly. Even Gotland has Neolithic structures dating c3600 BCE. Most of these can be categorized as complexes. They often include Dolmen, passage tombs and stone rows or circles. Most have been found to have astronomical alignments. Some having to do with the Moon, but others are also aligned to major events of the Sun, and also have possible connections to planets, stars and constellations.

The oldest stone ‘circle’ found to date is at Nabta Playa, Egypt, dating c6000-c4000 BCE. The circle is egg-shaped rather than round, but is believed to have been used for astronomy and calendar keeping. There are now claims that suggest Adam’s Calendar, made of dolerite, may date to c25,000 BCE. If this is correct, then Adam’s Calendar would be the oldest. However, a circle of small rocks or a plain henge could have been used for the same thing. The markers would have been portable stones to mark the important events, whether connected to the Moon, Sun, planets or stars. Some very early henges have been found in Cornwall, one of the earliest areas for mining metals in England. These were mined here before the Bronze Age started in England.

A henge is basically a large round area with a ditch and bank surrounding it. There’s generally one or two openings which allow access to the henge. It isn’t known what they were used for, but later stone circles where generally within a henge. Since most stone circles have astronomical significance, it’s not a far leap to suppose that a plain henge was used for this as well.

It’s a fact that a calendar can be created anywhere on Earth, using nothing more than a plain circle plus some markers for significant events, such as the Equinox, the shortest and longest day, or to track the movements of the Moon, planets and stars. They were often constructed in places where there was at least one major feature on the skyline, such as a hill of two where the Moon or Sun rose or set on a certain day. At Maeshowe passage tomb in the Orkneys, the Sun sets between two hills on the shortest day, and shines right into the passage. Maeshowe can be seen from the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stennes.  These three are now considered a complex along with the Neolithic village of Skara Brae. Some of Jasmine’s descendents were found at Skara Brae.

I posed my original question about Jasmine’s descendents because there are some disquieting things among the ruins of the constructions left by the Neolithic people in the UK and Ireland. Their expertise of construction, astronomy and their knowledge of the calendar can be seen at Stonehenge and many other sites in these areas.

Skara Brae is also……………..odd. We are told by archaeologists that this was a village, but has more the feeling of a one story apartment building. We are told that the people who lived here were probably an interrelated family group. But there is something not right about this picture. I can understand that they would want to bar the outside door to the complex, but why was it necessary for them to be able to lock up each individual dwelling? Each dwelling had a low opening for a doorway, and a stone slab which could be fitted in the opening. Good for keeping out the draft, but there were also signs that there had been wooden bars to lock these doors closed. This sort of behaviour does not fit in with an interrelated family group in such an isolated place. Privacy in each dwelling could have been achieved just by hanging a piece of hide over the opening. This seems more the behaviour of strangers or strangers who were tenants?

There were people at Skara Brae long before these houses were built. They were built within a midden, and people had been there long enough to create quite a sizable heap. The inhabitants excavated the midden, and built their stonewalled houses inside of this. The remains of the midden then became the outside insulation, and stopped drafts or water from seeping in through the thick stone walls. The Skara Brae houses also had latrines with drainage to carry off the waste.

The whole place feels as if it had been transplanted from some other more densely populated centre with a higher standard of civilization. Skara Brae, after all, was a very long way from any high civilization at that time. How then did the people of Skara Brae come up with these ideas? And who exactly were they? And what exactly were they doing there? At present some archaeologists think the people who lived here may have been of the priestly class (astronomer/surveyors?) who were the brains behind the Ring of Brodgar, the Stones of Stennes and Maeshowe. At the moment they are busy digging what seems to be the remains of seven buildings, possibly a temple complex. Time will tell. There may be many other things lurking beneath the soil, or out under the lakes and off shore.

The problem with digging into ancient history is that one usually ends up with a multitude of questions. Stonehenge is one such example. It also becomes apparent that religion and astronomy do seem to go hand in hand the further back in history one goes. The oldest accounts of temple building usually mention “stretching of the cord”, and putting in the corner-stone of the building. It also mentions the fact that the buildings were aligned by Sun or Moon or stars, and that a special day was waited for before the dedication ceremony took place. Even when the temple was complete, the special day was waited for. Sometimes for months. This can be found in the account of Gudea, a Sumerian king who lived c2200 BCE. The reason for this, is that the temple was the place where the calendar started, and you would need a special day to do this. In the earliest temples, their first day was usually the Spring Equinox. This changed over time, from people to people. Usually by the order of some god. A god, or people from a higher civilization? Only where was that higher civilization?

At Stonehenge we see building in reverse order. First they built the calendar, then the temple. The first part of Stonehenge was a calendar and included the outer bank, the ditch, inner bank, the four Station Stones, their mounds and ditches, the Aubrey holes, a marker at the Heel stone, markers at F and H, the two posts on the right bank of the Avenue, which are not numbered or lettered, the posts marked A1, 2, 3, 4, and possibly other outliers. There are many positions on the Aubrey hole circle which at first glance relate to the Sun, but many of these spots are related to the Moon also. For instance, today, Station Stone 93 to H, marks Winter Solstice Sunrise, but it is also very close to the midway point of the 18.6 years travel of the Summer Moonrise. However, in 3200 BCE these positions would have been a few degrees to the NE of where they are now, but with this setup, they could count the days, years, keep track of the phases of the Sun and Moon, planets, constellations and eclipses.

The first thing that was done there, was a long period of observation. In fact, observations may have been taking place there since c7000 BCE, this is when the first posts to mark the Equinox were placed here. Another set of posts were placed on the Equinox line c6000 BCE. The locations of these two sets of posts are in the current parking lot, filled with concrete. Whoever placed Stonehenge on this spot may have been looking for this place on purpose. It is located at the only place in the Northern Hemisphere where the Sun and Moon have their maximum risings and settings at 90°. So that the Station Stone quadrangle could be created. The only other place on Earth where this can happen is close to the Falklands Islands in the Strait of Magellan. I wonder will some underwater archaeologist find another Stonehenge there some day?

While this long period of observation was going on, there was probably much cord stretching and rock placing. All you need to survey a place are some surveying instruments, some cord and some rocks or stakes to mark the important places. Two straight staves will do as surveying instruments. At first you can use small rocks to mark the appropriate points, no need for the heavy ones until you’ve found what you are looking for. They were not only looking for the Equinox line, but also the maximum risings and settings of the Sun and Moon. When the henge was constructed, they were already tracking eclipses, and this became part of the construction. They kept track of planets and significant stars as well. They were in the Neolithic, rocks are the most basic of markers.

My theory is that these people already knew all the significant positions long before they created the henge and the Aubrey hole circle. Boulders, large rocks or more posts may have been placed there early on. The henge and Aubrey hole circle were just a new technical improvement over just posts and large rocks. The Aubrey holes allowed them to create a permanent calendar, so that they could keep track of days, seasons, years, cycles of the planets and stars, and the eclipses.

 In diagram A, we see the first part of their surveying. First they put in the Equinox line, which runs from Aubrey hole 93 to F, although these two points may not have been created until later. Although I’m mentioning the Aubrey holes in connection to the lines, no Aubrey holes existed at that point, only the lines. Next they put in the line from Aubrey hole 28-56-A4. A4 is one of the four small posts on the Avenue. This was the Summer Solstice Sunrise line in 3000 BCE. Then they put in the line from Aubrey hole 14 to Aubrey hole 42, quartering the area and giving them a centre to work from.

The Station Stone quadrangle is basically a rectangle 12 units by 5 units, but dividing this again would give  24 units by ten units. Measuring out twelve units from the centre on both sides of the centre line, they strung two lines parallel to line 28-56. These are the black lines A and B.

The blue lines are the Major and Minor Winter Moonrise positions in 3000 BCE. The centre blue line which runs past post A3, is the mid-point of the Winter Moon’s travels. It takes 18.6 years to travel from the Minor to the Major points. Gerald Hawkins found that this movement of the Moon worked in a cycle of 19, 19, 18 years between the Minor and Major point. The Moon appears over the central line every 10, 9, 9 years, so twice as often than the other two points.

The green line over the Heel stone is 5° northwest of the Winter Moonrise Minor point 3000 BCE. Once the Moon traveled close to this on its way northwest, it entered the zone which was important to the eclipses of Sun and Moon. Eclipses which happened both at the full Moon closest to the Winter Solstice and at the full Moon closest to the Summer Solstice. This zone is approximately 7° wide, and between the green line running to post A2 and the green line over the Heel stone is the area where these dangerous Moons would appear. The green line from the Heel stone was drawn all across the circle as shown. This line was used to help set up the Station Stones.

The next step was to put in the Station Stones. At Aubrey hole 14, they measured 5 units NE and 5 units SW. This gave them the positions of Station Stones 91 and 92. From Station Stone 91, they drew a line parallel to line 14-42 all the way over to where Station Stone 94 would be placed eventually. This line sits at 90° to the Summer Solstice Sunrise line c3000 BCE. The line from Station Stones 92-93, sits at 90° to the green line coming from the Heel stone, which was at 5° northwest of Winter Moonrise Minor point c3000 BCE, and was the danger zone indicator of eclipses once the Moon had travelled northwest of here. The fact that they did this, shows that they were definitely taking into account the eclipses from the beginning when they built this place. We haven’t even come to the Aubrey holes yet.


 Diagram B shows the next step in the surveying. From the centre to Station Stone 93 was used as the radius of the circle. Diagram B is a copy of Diagram C which was originally drawn by hand, and after trying several points on the circle, I found that the centre to Station Stone 93 worked best, so I gather these points were used for the diameter. After creating the circle, they marked in the quarters and cross quarters of the circle at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56.These are the blue dots. The positions of the Station Stones were marked, these are the green dots. The black dot is F.

Since I’m neither a mathematician nor an astronomer, I have no idea about the theory that was used for the next part, but it worked very well. Some genius must have been at work here. One of the first markers on the Aubrey hole circle would have been F. Station Stone 93 to F is the Equinox line.

Once they had marked the circle for the Aubrey holes, they could then determine how far away they wanted to place the bank. Men could start digging the ditch to create the inner and outer banks. While this was going on, the surveyors started marking in the rest of the Aubrey holes.

They strung a line between Station Stone 93 and F. (green line) Then they measured the distance between Aubrey hole 56 and F, and transferred it to the northwest side, creating point A. Then they strung a line between A and Station Stone 92.

They transferred the measurement from A to F, to the SW side of the circle, using Aubrey hole 28 as the centre, creating points B and C.

Then they strung lines from B to Station Stone 91, and from C to Station Stone 94.

The resultant green diamond or lozenge has angles of 80° at Aubrey hole 56, 100° at Aubrey hole 42, 79° at  Aubrey hole 28 and 101° at Aubrey hole 14. The difference in angles is due to the distance between the Station Stones being shorter on the northwest side than on the southeast side.

At this point they strung lines parallel to these lozenge lines at the cross quarters 7, 21, 35 and 49. (blue) The result being that they now had two parallel lines the correct measurement between three Aubrey holes. This configuration can be seen on the gold lozenge found buried with the Wessex lord in the Bush Barrow, which also has angles of 80° and 100°. The Stonehenge Logo as I like to call it. It’s at the very heart of the layout of the Aubrey holes. It has been discovered lately by J. Giesen that this beautiful artefact may have been used as a vernier for keeping track of all the Major Sunrise and Moonrise events. The Wessex lords belt hook is a quadrangle, just like the Station Stone quadrangle.


                                                               The Bush Barrow Lozenge

Then they divided the distance between these Aubrey holes and drew their central lines. This gave them three Aubrey holes at each cross quarter. It was only at those positions that they were able to arrive at the correct measurement between Aubrey holes.


 Once they had the correct measurement, they could put in the three Aubrey holes at each of the four quarters of the circle, using 14, 28, 42 and 56 as the centres.

All the red holes are the ones left over after all this stringing. This left four pie shaped pieces with three Aubrey holes each, and four pie shaped pieces with five holes each. For the ones with three holes, they likely divided the angle in two and then in two again. For the sections with five holes, they divided the angle for the central hole, and then used their previously found measurement for the next two Aubrey holes on either side of this central one. And, voila, we have 56 Aubrey holes, and the Wessex lord’s gold lozenge may be proof that this was the method used to lay out these holes.

The Forfeda


It is my belief that the last five letters of the Ogham tract, called the Forfeda, had their birth at Stonehenge. By joining Aubrey holes 28/56 and 14/42 they had created X since these positions sit almost NE/SW and SE/NW.

By joining Aubrey holes 49-7, 7-21, 21-35, and 35-49 you create a square whose corners sit almost N, S, E and W. Now you have a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. That Square of Enlightenment.

The basic configuration for this layout was started with two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines. The green lines and then the blue lines.

The Hook was the surveying instrument used, and the line was the measuring cord.

They did create the Net, and even though it was not three by three squares, it is still Bab-Ilu, the Gate of God. In this case, it may have been the Sun god’s gate or possibly the Gate of Min, who was a very early Egyptian Moon god, whose festival day was the Summer Solstice. After coming to understand what happens in the area of the Avenue, I can see that this had as much to do with the Moon as the Sun, and highly important for predicting eclipses. Min is one aspect of Khnum, Khem and Thoth. One of Min’s devices was a disk inside of a crescent which is lying on its’ back. I have seen this device over Thoth’s head in several pictures, and I have read that this device is carved at Gobekli Tepe. After delving into ancient Egyptian history, I discovered that there had been a movement of people who migrated from Egypt into Sumeria c10,000-c9000 BCE. It’s thought that these people brought farming to ancient Mureybet and the rest of the Fertile Crescent, and that they were responsible for building Gobekli Tepe. Considering that Min’s device made it to Gobekli Tepe, this could to be correct. The people who built Gobekli Tepe seem to have been very advanced for their time. The stone carvings there are highly unusual for that time period.

Lets look at what these symbols represent.

X is named the Grove, a sacred place. All the knowledge, which represents all the other symbols of the Ogham tract, can be found within the Grove. Each tree and plant symbol holds its own knowledge, and so the Grove contains all this combined knowledge. If Stonehenge was the Grove, then many things may have been going on there, including healing, since almost all the trees and plants in the tract have medicinal uses.

The square with its corners turned to the cardinal points is named Oir or Spindle, but it has an alternative name, Tharan or Thunder, but it is the lightning which is referred to. Just as a flash of lightning will illuminate the night sky, a sudden flash of inner enlightenment may light up a prickly problem which you have been dealing with. These sudden flashes of insight often lead to new inventions, discoveries, and ideas. But Oir is also connected to perseverance in the face of a difficult task, which is generally what you need for a prickly problem. I call it the Square of Enlightenment, and it was used at Stonehenge in an other very interesting way which I’ll write about at another time. Whoever dreamt up that idea was certainly enlightened.

It is this same square with its corners turned to the cardinal points  which we find in the Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone, which is also a square of enlightenment since it shows the directional quarters and cross quarters, and tells you what lies in the four cross quarter directions. Spindle wood was used for spindles, bobbins and pegs among other things. The Gwyn Stone is a peg in some ancient surveying, a surveyors trig point. Since it stands six and a half feet above ground and seven and a half feet below ground, it was well pegged. Not likely to move anytime soon.

The Hook is named Phagos or Beech, and symbolizes old knowledge, old writing, which suggests that astronomy and surveying have a long history. Considering that many cave paintings are now believed to have astronomical notations, it goes back a very far way. After all, people were acquainted with the night sky for millennia. When people were hunters and gatherers, they ranged over huge areas. Each feature of the landscape, the Sun, Moon and stars became their map, and told them which part of the year they were in. Most hunters and gatherers had a base camp where they spent the colder part of the year. The positions of the stars, the Sun and the Moon counts, would have told them when to head back to their base camp. Vegetation would have been a seasonal marker, but raspberries and blueberries aren’t always ripe at the same time every year, that depends on the weather, but the Sun, Moon and stars are a constant. “writing” may not have been the original word used for this type of thing. Planting trees as messages could be considered writing. Just a different sort of writing than we are used to. The word, book, also comes from an old name for Beech. Long ago, thin slabs of Beech were used to write on, and connected together to form a ‘book’.

The Net is named the Sea, and symbolizes the sea, travel, maternal links and the Moon. Understanding lines of latitude and longitude, and their cross quarters, and also understanding astronomy would indeed give you the ability to travel in any direction, even by water. If ley lines, as described by Alfred Watkins, were established at that point in time, one could travel either by night or day. Mr. Watkins thought that some of the older trackways in the UK may have been established sometime between 4000 BCE and 2000 BCE. Ancient mariners used the Moon as well as the Sun and stars to navigate. If they were going any distance, these would become a seasonal marker for them as well.

The two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines is named Uilleand or the Honeysuckle, and symbolizes the hidden secret. Since the layout and use of the 56 Aubrey holes has been debated for many years, this formation remained the hidden secret for a very long time, five thousand years worth of time. The bird connected to this symbol is the Pewit. It nests on the ground, and when disturbed will fly up and away, thus creating a distraction away from its eggs hidden in their nest on the ground. I found this symbolism very appropriate for Stonehenge, where the general population would have been watching what was happening in the sky, and not paying attention to the Aubrey holes. When they were filled with chalk, they would look like eggs within a nest, the big white bank creating the nest. The Aubrey holes were the hidden secret as far as the general population was concerned, but this is where the operators of the circle did their counting of days and years, which gave them knowledge of the coming of the Solstices, the Equinoxes and the eclipse cycle.

Stay tuned for part II, and I’ll tell you how they did it.

Photography sources:

The Queen Stone by Alan J. Wood of Wyenot News

The Bush Barrow Lozenge, Wikipedia

Ground plan of Stonehenge, Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Building and Works, England

Ogham tract by J Rankin

Other sources:

 Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”                                                                                          

Alfred Watkins, “Early British Trackways, Moats, Mounds, Camps and Sites”. A lecture given to the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club, at Hereford, September, 1921

Arthur Cotterell, “Encyclopedia of Mythology”

Bryan Sykes, “The Seven Daughters of Eve”

Bryan Sykes, “Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History, published in the United States and Canada as, “Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland”

Caitlin and John Matthews, “Encyclopaedia of Celtic Wisdom”

D. P. Gregg, “The Stonehenge Codes” (PDF)

Fernand Neil, “The Mysteries of Stonehenge”

Gerald S Hawkins and John B White “Stonehenge Decoded”

J. Giesen, Sun and Moon Lozenge Applet

Joseph J. Thorndike Jr., “Discovery of Lost Worlds”

Liz and Colin Murray, “The Celtic Tree Oracle, a System of Divination”

Richard Cavendish, “Prehistoric England”

Zecharia Sitchin, “When Time Began”

Wikipedia, Y haplogene and MtDNA

Y Geiriadur Mawr, “The Complete Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary.

A New Look at the Sator Square

 While searching for information about the Constellation Cygnus, I came across the mneme MEW3 and the Sator Square. I’ll admit, I’d never heard of these. I made a Sator Square, left it on my computer, and had a look at it every so often, trying to figure out what it was all about. Most of the translations seemed to suggest something about farmers ploughing, but I thought that rather odd. Why would ayone create a palindrome about farmers ploughing? Then I found the following, which seemed more logical.

“In Rome during the Middle Ages this square was inscribed on a variety of common, everyday objects such as utensils and drinking vessels. It was also found above doorways. It was believed that the square had magical properties, and that making it visible would ward off evil spirits. The words on this square roughly translate to “The Creator (or Saviour) holds the workings of the spheres in his hands” (1)

A translation of the words of the Sator Square (2)


Sower, planter; founder, progenitor (usually divine); originator


(arrepo) (I) creep/move stealthily towards, also trust, its similarity with arrepo, from ad repo, ‘I creep toward’, may be coincidental


hold, keep; comprehend; possess; master; preserve


(a) work, care; aid, service, (an) effort/trouble


(rota) wheel, rotate; (roto) (I) whirl around, revolve, rotate

My translation

From the Creator flows the understanding of the workings of the spheres.

But the Sator Square doesn’t quite end there. No, for some reason I’m not sure of, I had to add ‘star light, star bright’ to the picture. I think my original idea had to do with squaring the circle, and I wondered could I add a pentagram, and would it suite. But that didn’t work, so I ended up with the black configuration. I was very curious to see if the lines created any meaningful words. They do.

By only using letters through which the lines run, I came up with: tereo, opera, aeset. Start at the top point of the ‘head’, move down the left leg, and up to the right arm. Then straight across the shoulder. Then move down the right leg, and back up to the top point of the head.

Well…………it turns out these are words from three different languages; Greek, Latin and Spanish. Tereo is Greek, and from the New Testament Greek Lexicon, the definition is: to attend to carefully, to guard………..metaphor, to keep, one in the state in which he is to observe……………… reserve: to undergo something.

And from Bible usage:

King James Word Usage – Total 75

keep 57, reserve 8, observe 4, watch 2, keeper 1, hold fast 1

Opera, I translated as, workings

Aeset, is Spanish for, asset. Although it isn’t likely that modern Spanish as a language existed on the Iberian Peninsula in 79 AD, none the less, the Spanish word, aeset, does mean asset in English. This word is neither Greek nor Latin. The Latin term was, ab assit. It comes to the English language through old French and Latin. However, the oldest ancestors of modern Spanish were Common Latin, Celtiberian and Basque. By 79 AD, the Romans had been in Spain for more than two hundred years, and obviously this word existed in 79 AD.

So my translation then becomes:

From the Creator flows the understanding of the workings of the spheres. Attending carefully to the workings (of the spheres) is an asset (to understanding).

After a few hours though, I realized that there was a fourth language used. That fourth language turned out to be Ogham, and this was a really big surprise, but the message makes perfect sense.


 My very first clue came from the four Ts. When they are joined together it creates a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. This is Oir, the Spindle tree, it has an alternative name, Tharan, but it is the lightning which is referred to. This tree symbol is connected to enlightenment. Just as a flash of lightning can light up the sky for a moment, enlightenment can also come in a flash. I refer to this symbol as the Square of Enlightenment. I have found this device several times, in rather strange places, and it was always ‘enlightening’. On the other hand, T is also Tinne, the Holly, which is said to be best in the fight both spiritual and physical. It speaks of balance and equilibrium because spear shafts were made from Holly. So perhaps this person is throwing a spear of enlightenment, with balance and equilibrium. “The pen is mightier than the sword”, perhaps.

So after this find, I decided to make more squares using only the letters at the corners of each square to get the meaning. The red square says SRSR. S is Saille, the Willow, this has to do with the Sun and Moon combining to create the pattern of the year, punctuated by days and nights. It also has to do with eclipses, since these are part of the movements of the Sun and Moon. R is Ruis, the Elder which symbolizes the beginning in the end, and the end in the beginning, and is connected to the Cauldron of Immortality. The Earth was considered a Cauldron of Immortality, since all life comes from Her and returns to Her. We think of immortality as being a personal thing, we’ll live forever. Our ancestors passed on their genes to us, we are their immortality, just as our descendents will become our immortality. Genetic immortality over great spans of time, which we keep track of with a calendar. For me, Cauldron of Immortality  equals Earth time and the calendar. Therefore, SRSR, tells us that the movements of the Sun and Moon create the calendar.

RPRP, gives us Ruis again, and Phagos, the Beech, which symbolizes old knowledge, old writing. The message being that the calendar is old knowledge, and can be found in old writings.

EEEE gives us Eadha four times. This is the White Poplar, whose whispering leaves give us the small still voice of God. But the letter also symbolizes rebirth. Every year is reborn, June 21st will keep coming around again and again. These four Es are also an example of the mneme, MEW3, which is symbolic of the quarters and cross quarters, regardless whether it is the year or the land directions. In this case, when the four Es are connected, it also creates a square of enlightenment. The eight divisions of the year are very old and come from astronomy, our calendar is based on astronomy. Land directions are a very big part of astronomy. If you want to know if it is the longest or shortest day, you would have to know in which section of the horizon the Sun will rise and set. To be able to predict eclipses, you would have to understand the movements of the Sun and Moon in relation to each other, and know the direction to watch to be able to do this. The four Es are telling us that we must observe the eight quarters and cross quarters of the horizon, so we will understand the eight divisions of the year, and be able to predict eclipses.

In the centre we have N which is Nuin, the Ash, the World Ash or Cosmic Ash, that which links together the microcosm and the macrocosm. The microcosm being the Earth, and the macrocosm being everything else around our planet. It’s certainly in the right place. Because a circle can be created anywhere on Earth, the World Ash, can exist anywhere on Earth. I can create my own private calendar circle in my own back yard, and so can anyone on Earth, if we have the right sort of horizon available.  The circle is our own World Ash. But the circle will not just give you the means to create a calendar, it will also give you land directions once you have sorted out the movements of the Sun and Moon.

Next we have AOAO or OAOA, depending on which square you look at. A is Ailim, the Silver Fir, however the name actually means Elm, but Silver Fir and Elm are very tall and symbolize high views and long sight. O is Oir which is enlightenment. I have seen Oir used as O in another document, where it was also represented as a square of enlightenment. So high views and long sight gives you enlightenment. On the other hand, enlightenment gives you high views and long sight. Usually O is Ohn, the Furze, which represent collecting together the elements needed to attain an end. So high views and long sight will give you the ability to collect the information you need. On the other hand, collecting together the information you need will give high views and long sight. The long sight being the ability to know what is to come and when, whether eclipses, or the eight divisions of the year when Celts celebrated their major festivals. Very Celtic, that duality. It shows up in their art a great deal.

The whole message we have here:

From the Creator flows the understanding of the workings of the spheres. Attending carefully to the workings (of the spheres) is an asset (to understanding).

The four Ts alert us to the fact that this Sator Square is a square of enlightenment, and he or she is throwing it at us like a spear. We need to be in one spot with high views and long sight, where we can watch 360 degrees of the horizon, to gain knowledge about the quarters and cross quarters of the year. This will give us knowledge about the movements of the Sun and Moon, which will give us the ability to predict the coming festival days and eclipses, and that this is a continues cycle which will go on for ever and ever. Once this information is gathered, we will have gained knowledge about the movements of the Sun and Moon, the eight divisions of the year, eclipses, land directions, and water navigation also. According to this writer, the calendar was old knowledge and could be found in old writings. Which by his or her time, it was old knowledge, and today we know that there are ancient astronomy records.

At the moment, the oldest calendar we know about is from Egypt and dates c4236 BCE, however, if all stone circles and henge monuments were for keeping a calendar, then this knowledge is much older, even if we have no records connected to them. The stone circle at Nabta Playa in Egypt, dates c6000-c4000BCE. Adam’s Calendar in southern Africa, may date to at least c25,000 BCE. This might seem surprising, but why not, after all humans have been on Earth for millennia, and at one time there was nothing to watch at night but the Moon and the stars. Hunters and gatherers ranged over large areas of land. The Sun, Moon, stars and landscape became their map. Many people today never take any note of the movements of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars. We no longer depend on them to hold our festivals, nor do we need them to travel around by. Many people living in cities all their lives, have never seen a sky full of stars. I’ve witnessed someone over seventy years of age discover this for the first time. She was quite in awe, and thought it so unusual that nothing would do but I had to go outside to see this wonderful vision she had discovered. Have to admit, it was quite fabulous that night, Milky Way and all.

Well………..must say………………….I’m really quite stunned by this message contained in the Sator Square. This square has been connected to the Knights Templar, but they came long after this square was created. They may have understood the whole message, or not, but the oldest one of these was found at Pompeii. Because the words are Latin, and the oldest was found at Pompeii, it’s thought to be Roman, and that the Romans spread it all over Europe and England also. But I don’t think the Romans were using Ogham, in fact, they seem to have had little time for the Celts and their Druids. No, whoever created this cunning square understood Latin, Greek, an early form of Spanish, and Ogham, but I have no idea how it became so widely spread.

It’s possible that there are numbers involved here also, but the most noticeable one in the Ogham configurations is four. That number four, which as far as I’m concerned has to do with hidden secrets. Well hidden here. There were four languages used, that was also hidden. And ‘star light, star bright’? well I know where that comes from, and I will write about it another time, but it also gives number five. There are five rows of five letters each, giving a total of twenty five. There are five divisions of five letters each in the Ogham tract, for a total of twenty five. Tereo opera aeset gives fifteen letters. That’s how many letters were said to have been in the earliest tract. These were the consonants. The next group to be added were the vowels, the last group the diphthongs.

I can find all the diphthongs on this square. In diagram e, we have a red cross or X, this is the Grove or Sacred place. All knowledge can be found within the Grove. All the tree and plant symbols of the Ogham tract contain their own knowledge. The Grove contains all of them. Since this covers the whole square and crosses through the Cosmic Ash, this square is the Sacred place, and it contains all the knowledge within the trees which gave us the Ogham message.

The two blue parallel lines crossing two parallel lines is Uilleand, the Honeysuckle, and it symbolizes the hidden secret. This configuration usually gives a diamond or lozenge in the middle, but we’re working with a square. The hidden secret it reveals is the fact that one must observe the sky from one place and be able to see in all four directions, to obtain good results which will give you an accurate calendar. This being the four Es and the N within the square.

In diagram f, we see a representation of Phagos, Beech, the Hook, old knowledge, old writing. Our English word, book, comes from an old form of the name, Beech. At one time thin slabs of Beech were used to write on. Several of these were attached together, creating a ‘book’.

When you join the four Ts or the four Es, you get the square of enlightenment, which is Oir or Tharan.

If you join all the letters vertically and horizontally (g), it gives you a net, four squares by four squares. This is one quarter of a square of Hermes. There are various forms to the net in different Ogham tracts, some have two by two, others three by three and some four by four. My tract has three by three because this is what Colin Murray had in his tract. In Mesopotamia, this version was known as Bab-Ilu, the Gate of God.

If all the outside letters are joined through N, you get a sixteen point windstar. A flower with sixteen petals is said to have been the device of the Ancient Mystery Schools. Astronomy, mathematics and surveying were some of the mysteries taught.

There is still a debate about the age of the Ogham tract. Some scholars believe that it was created by the Gnostic missionaries in Ireland. The Forfeda, which are the last five letters in the tract, represent diphthongs which were supposed to have been missing in the Irish Gaelic. However, the oldest Sator Square was found at Pompeii, and is dated 79AD because that’s when Pompeii was buried under volcanic ash. I have found an example which dates to at least the Bronze Age, and the Forfeda came into existence c3200 BCE. I will write about that another time also, but ‘star light, star bright’ comes from the same place. But for the moment, the Sator Square proves that the whole tract was intact by at least 79AD, consonants, vowels and diphthongs. It also shows that there was a genius at work here, who understood several languages. The whole thing is also typically Celtic, it has layers for those who could understand this message.

The first one which says SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS, the second which gives us TEREO OPERA AESET, the third which gives the Ogham message. I would put the last five symbols, the Forfeda, in a separate category. They would be the fourth layer which makes them the hidden secret. The Forfeda symbols are all connected to astronomy and surveying.

X marks the spot. The square with its corners turned to the cardinal points, we still use those on maps today. The two parallel lines crossed by two parallel lines, usually gives a diamond or lozenge in the centre when seen in the tract. Divide a square or a diamond in two and you have two triangles. Surveying is done by triangulation. The hook represents a star watching/ surveying device. The net which is usually called the Sea, represent lines of latitude and longitude. You would have to understand those to navigate at sea, particularly out on the ocean, where there is no landmass to give you direction. The Forfeda are said to be Manannan’s treasures, but along with them he also had the rolled up strip of the whale’s back, and these were all kept in the Crane Bag along with all the other letters of the tract. The strip of the whale’s back is the line which joins all the letters together. The rolled up strip of the whale’s back is the measuring cord.

The sixteen point windstar is a separate device altogether, although this does have to do with astronomy, surveying, map making and sailing, it seems more like a signature or seal. The mark of the Ancient Mystery Schools, which became the fifth layer.

Just think, while some of the major religions were trying to curtail the common people’s interest in astronomy, this message was sitting in plain view for all to see all during those long, long years. Astrology has been mixed up with astronomy since very ancient times. This is a type of divination which suggests that the Sun, Moon and planets regulate our lives. Our fate is connected to these orbs and the Houses they appear in. The Sun, Moon and planets were worshiped as gods at one time, but both the Jewish rabbis and the Christian priests, discouraged this running after pagan gods, and tried to steer the common people away from both astronomy and astrology, and put their faith in one God instead. And listen to them.

Neither astronomers nor astrologers died out, but definitely had a hard time of it for a long time. More than one person found themselves excommunicated and/or locked up for suggesting something as simple as, the Earth goes around the Sun, even though the Sumerians already knew that the Earth and all the other planets go around the Sun. The idea that the Sun goes around the Earth came from Ptolemy with his geocentric theories of planetary motion, which held that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, with the Sun, Moon and planets revolving around it.This idea lasted for fourteen centuries until the theories of Copernicus were finally adopted.

Any connections to the Ancient Mystery Schools were also discouraged, since they were also involved with astronomy, higher mathematics and surveying, and whatever other mysteries they studied. They didn’t die out either, rather they were driven underground, the remnants of which do not reappear among the general population until the seventeen hundreds, but even then under a heavy veil of secrecy, and only accessible to certain people. The Knights Templar may have had a great deal of this knowledge, but they were persecuted into near extinction.

But who was the creator of the Sator Square, and why did they hide it among Latin words? A Druid dragged off to Pompeii as a slave? Or a well educated noble or Druid, leaving their message behind on their travels? Whichever way, it probably tickled their Celtic funny bone. Considering their other artifacts, they seem to have had a very sly sense of humour.

Although I have seen the meanings of some of the symbols of the Forfeda switched around, Phagos the hook as the hidden secret being an example, I think Colin Murray had it correct due to other things I have found, where the parallel crossed lines as Uilleand, was symbolic of the hidden secret. It is possible that at one time, the meanings of Phagos, Uilleand and the Net may have been interchanged to keep the secret hidden. Without Colin Murray’s interpretation, I would not have discovered the hidden secrets within other things. All of which were quite enlightening, and very surprising.

One of the most amazing things the Sator Square brings to light, is that Ogham, once understood could bypass any language.The person who created this didn’t speak the same language as I do, but symbolic meanings translate into any language, even over almost two thousand years. They didn’t spell out words with it, but used the most basic symbolic meanings of each letter instead. So far, this is not the only example of Ogham being used this way that I have found, and it may be lurking in other ancient pictures and constructions.

(1) math

(2) Sator Square, Wikipedia

Coll Hazel’s Ogham, from the Celtic Tree Oracle by Liz and Colin Murray.

The Ogham tract and the Sator Squares used here, were created by the author.