The Stonehenge Carvings

This is an updated version of our original paper Stonehenge Carvings. We discovered some small errors which had been overlooked although I’m sure we read through everything dozens of times.


Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet

                   Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet

Greetings from Cape Breton. At last I have made the figure 8 back to my blog.

Two and a half years ago a gentleman named Lloyd Matthews wrote to me about some carvings he believed were original to the stone monument at Stonehenge. Did I know what they might mean?

No, I had no idea that they existed. I haven’t been to Stonehenge, so never had a chance to have a good look at the stones. Like most people who are interested in Stonehenge, I knew about the carvings of the axe heads and the Mycenaean knife but knew nothing about the carvings Mr. Matthews showed me.

We have put in all this time researching and spending hundreds of hours with our astronomy programs and reading, reading, reading and watching documentaries about Stonehenge. Part way through our project, James Matthews joined us and made sure everything was correctly written and contributed to some of the diagrams. Great stacks of email have crossed the Atlantic since the start of our project, but now we are finished, happy with the outcome of our research.

So now we present it to you , my readers. We hope you will enjoy this paper and I hope that the fact that it is 90 + pages will make up for my two and a half year disappearance. I’m not sure when I will be back but I’ll have something new and interesting. Ancient history is full of interesting things.

Click the link below to read the PDF

Stonehenge Carvings v.6


The Stonehenge Carvings


Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet

Forest Spirit by Susan Seddon Boulet


Greetings from Cape Breton. At last I have made the figure 8 back to my blog.

Two and a half years ago a gentleman named Lloyd Matthews wrote to me about some carvings he believed were original to the stone monument at Stonehenge. Did I know what they might mean?

No, I had no idea that they existed. I haven’t been to Stonehenge, so I’ve never had a chance to have a good look at the stones. Like most people who are interested in Stonehenge, I knew about the carvings of the axe heads and the Mycenaean knife but knew nothing about the carvings Mr. Matthews showed me.

We have put in all this time researching and spending hundreds of hours with our astronomy programs and reading, reading, reading and watching documentaries about Stonehenge. Part way through our project, James Matthews joined us and made sure everything was correctly written and contributed to some of the diagrams and the research. Great stacks of email have crossed the Atlantic since the start of our project, but now we are finished, happy with the outcome of our research.

So now we present it to you , my readers. We hope you will enjoy this paper and I hope that the fact that it is 90 + pages will make up for my two and a half year disappearance. I’m not sure when I will be back but I’ll have something new and interesting. Ancient history is full of interesting things.

Click the link below to read the pdf.


Stonehenge Carvings v.3 (1)


Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part VII

Spinning Threads

Spinning Threads

The 56 Aubrey holes at Stonehenge have always been a puzzle, but I found that they could be used as a calendar. Not only for keeping track of days and years, but also for keeping track of planets, stars and eclipses. 56 is a very interesting number, it can be 7 x 8 = 56, 4 x 14 = 56, 2 x 28 = 56. Gerald Hawkins found that eclipse cycles at Stonehenge run 10, 9, 9, 10, 9, 9, years or 19, 19, 18 years. 10 + 9 + 9 + 10 + 9 + 9 = 56. 19 + 19 + 18 = 56. The year, 6.5 x 56 = 364 + 1 = 365. The cycle of Venus which passes between the Sun and the Earth every 584 days 10 x 56 + 24 = 584. The astronomers at Stonehenge were also keeping track of cycles of 72 and 128 years. 72 + 56 = 128. 72 years has to do with cycles of the Zodiac, and every 128 years they were not adding a day for leap year. (1)

There is a much more interesting number connected to the Aubrey holes. 360° ÷ 56 = 6.4285714°. In the diagram below all the black dots, Suns and Moons are all positions of the full Moon. The ones in the central zone are full Winter Moons which become involved with eclipses of both the Sun and Moon at both the Winter and Summer Solstices. These are not the positions of the actual eclipses. The Winter Sun never comes near the Avenue and the Summer Moon closest to Summer Solstice will eclipse between the uprights of the Great Trilithon.

Hawkins 001

When the Winter Moon is traveling from its Minor to Major position over 18.61 years, it will be in the middle zone every 10, 9, 9 years. When it is  in its Minor or Major position it indicates eclipses close to the Equinoxes, but in the middle zone it indicates eclipses at the Winter and/ or Summer Solstice. By watching the position of the Winter Moon’s rising, the astronomers at Stonehenge would know whether there would be an eclipse close to either the Equinoxes or Solstices. As can be seen, the middle zone is not quite 6.5° wide, it’s more like 6.4285714° wide.

There are several theories about eclipse prediction at Stonehenge and the manner in which it could be done. They all work, but the people at Stonehenge had a much simpler way. If they saw that the Winter Moon indicated an eclipse of the Moon close to Summer Solstice, all they had to do was count the days on their calendar until the full Moon in May. This would tell them when the next full Moon would be in June. Gerald Hawkins was at Stonehenge in 1964, he knew there would be an eclipse of the Moon on June 25. He noticed that the time difference between the Moon’s rising and the Sun’s setting became shorter by almost an hour a day, until June 24 when the Moon rose 15 minutes before the Sun set. Six hours later there was an eclipse of the Moon at around 2 AM, June 25.

stonehengeb Moon eclipse

I checked out this eclipse in 1964 on Cybersky, and what I found was that the first flash of the Moon above the horizon occurred at 8:06 PM and by 2:31:43 AM the Moon had eclipsed and now the first sliver of light was appearing again. 6.4285714 hours = 6 hours, 25 minutes and 43 seconds. This is the amount of time between 8:06 PM and 2:31:43 AM. This time difference between the Moon rising, the Sun setting and the eclipse will always be the same, except that the time of the eclipse would be different on June 10 than it would be on June 22, because on June 10 the Moon will rise earlier and the Sun set earlier, and so the eclipse will also be earlier. There is also a limit to the time difference between Moonrise and Sunrise for an eclipse of the Sun. If the Moon rises too long before Sunrise, the Sun will not have time to catch up to the Moon for an eclipse. That is what actually happens for an eclipse of the Sun. The Sun is traveling faster than the Moon and it passes behind the Moon to become eclipsed.

There is one other thing which I discovered about this magic number 6.4285714. I was so curious about it that I looked it up on line just to see if something would come up about this. And it did. 45 days = 6.4285714 weeks. What was the meaning of this 45 days? New Years day of the Stonehenge calendar was June 21. At Sunset that evening a marker was placed between Aubrey holes 28-27, this was to mark the first day. The marker then travelled counter-clockwise, not being moved until Sunset of each day. Including June 21 as day 1, 45 days will take you to August 4, day 90 is September 18, day 135 is November 2, day 180 is December 17, day 225 is January 31, day 270 is March 17, day 315 is May 1, day 360 is June 15. 8 x 45 = 360 + 5 = 365. It is likely that they had permanent mark stones at these eight places on the Aubrey hole circle. Perhaps painted different colours, or painted with different symbols which would tell them which day it was when they came to one.45 day cycle

Our modern quarter and cross quarter days are June 21, August 1, September 21, October 31, December 21, February 2, March 21, and May 1. The quarter days are in June, September, December and March, these are the Solstices and Equinoxes. Trying to pinpoint the exact day of the Solstices just by observing Sunrise is very difficult because the Sun seems to stand still for several days before you will notice the movement in the other direction again. But at Stonehenge they had their calendar to tell them when the exact day was. Including June 21, it is 184 days until Sunset of the Winter Solstice. You can see where day 180 is, in three days the marker would be between 13-14 at H. The next morning will be the Sunrise of Winter Solstice which in 3000 and 2500 BCE would appear at 130.48° and 130.39° which fall between 12-13 marked by the blue dot. At Sundown your marker will be between 12-13, and you will have counted 184 days The folks at Stonehenge seem to have been keeping a calendar of 8 periods of 45 days each, plus 5 days.

One of the most interesting outcomes of this plotting of the 45 days is that when the lowest five numbers are connected, they create a pentagram which in this case  becomes a pentacle since it is inside a circle. The oldest representation of a pentagram comes from Mesopotamia 3000 BCE, but it seems the folks at Stonehenge already had one in 3154 BCE when their calendar started. There is a great deal of symbolism attached to both the pentagram and pentacle which exists among many cultures in the world. However, the most important thing about this one at Stonehenge is that it shows a direct link between astronomy and geometry. It was astronomy and the counting of those 45 day periods on 56 places which created the pentagram.

The magic number 6.4285714 does play a great part at Stonehenge. It’s the number of degrees between Aubrey holes. It’s the number of degrees of the Moon/Sun indicator eclipse zone on the Avenue. It is the hours, minutes and seconds between first flash of the Moon’s rising and the first sliver of light of the Moon as the eclipse started passing away again. And last, but not least, it represents 45 days which divided the Aubrey hole circle into the quarters and cross quarters of the year. The layout for the 56 Aubrey holes was also created using astronomy. (2) It would seem that right from the beginning Stonehenge was all about astronomy. So far I have not found any use of higher mathematics here, nor did they use any complicated geometry. The pentagram was only the outcome of the 45 day cycle.


Stonehenge Decoded by Gerald Hawkins in collaboration with John B. White


Sun Moon Lozenge Applet by J. Giessen

(1) Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part II

(2) Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part I

Diagrams and pictures

Spider Woman 1986 painting by Susan Seddon Boulet

Stonehenge Decoded by Gerald Hawkins in collaboration with John B. White

Moon eclipse at Stonehenge from

Groundplan of Stonehenge from the Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Buildings and Works, England. Additions by J. Rankin

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part VI

The Hidden Secret, Triangles and Lozenges



 Above is a geometric configuration which shows the Hidden Secret. The equilateral triangle is symbolic of the Godhead, of which we are only aware of three dimensions, the fourth is hidden. This configuration symbolizes the four faces of God. I don’t know how old this symbolism is or how it came to be this way, but at Stonehenge Lugh’s head was an equilateral triangle. The equilateral triangle was used by the Egyptians, and along with the right-angled triangle, is still a symbol among the Masons. To the Egyptians this triangle represented animal, vegetable and mineral. Christianity uses this triangle which is symbolic of the Trinity. The central triangle can be joined to any one of the other triangles to create a lozenge with angles 60° and 120°. These are the same angles found on the Wessex lord’s small gold lozenge.


By applying all the inside angles of the three coloured lozenges, I created a spiral inside the central triangle of the first triangle. This looks like a geometric formation of a child in the womb, or the germination of a seed with its first tiny root. The hidden potential which exists within all life forms. Not just physically but also psychologically. It’s that spark of life which comes from and connects us to the Source. The downward pointing triangle is symbolic of the feminine. This divided triangle can also have the Qabalah meaning of Kether, Chokma and Binah. These are the first three Divine Emanations, known as the Three Supernals. Kether means Crown, Chokma means Wisdom, and Binah means Understanding. Together with these three there is an invisible Sephirah named Daath, which means knowledge. This Sephirah never appears on the Tree of Life, it always remains invisible, the Hidden Secret. Dion Fortune:

“we see that in Daath, is the secret of both generation and regeneration, the key to the manifestation of all things through the differentiation into pairs of Opposites and their union in the Third.”

From Kether comes the first emanation which is Chokma, a male principle, Binah emanates from Chokma, she is the female principle. Together, Wisdom and Understanding create Knowledge, but all this would be impossible without Kether, the Crown, since they are all emanations of Kether.

Lugh consists of one equilateral triangle, three with angles 30°, 120°, 30°, and six, with angles 30°, 60°, 90°. Bardic number values can be applied to these. One is Unity and Purity; three is the Trinity, past, present and future, or chaos, balance and creative force. The Bardic value for six, is Time. Knowledge has always remained the hidden secret at Stonehenge.


In diagram A, the black lines are the basic figure of Lugh. The gold and purple triangles just show which part of the body they came from among the triangles below. The measurements for creating the various triangles came from the original black lines.

In diagram B, I’ve outlined all the triangles which I refer to as the Temple Roof. This one has angles of 30°, 120°, 30°. These three triangles can be made into one lozenge with angles 120° and 60° , and one equilateral triangle.


In diagram C, I’m showing all the triangle 30°, 60°, 90°. When each triangle is put together with its mate, the resultant triangles are equilateral.

After creating the spiral in the first set of diagrams, I thought I’d try it with these triangles. The two red sides are equal in length, but the other coloured lines only have one line which is the same length as it had in the original triangle.  At first I only used the red, blue and green triangles, but the blue and green seemed  so much smaller than the red one, that I went looking for more triangles which would be logical in their function. The gold triangle includes the head and torso. The purple one the same but down to just below the knees. Not seeing any more, I put these together, and it does look like a snail. The coil on a snail shell is biggest on the outermost coil close to the opening. Nesting the triangles together, created an interesting result, since this rather reminded me of elevation markings on maps.


The Wessex lord’s small gold lozenge can be made with some of these triangles. Each red right-angled triangle includes the head, torso and one leg. The blue were the legs, and the green the arms. The Purple? Must be the robe since it goes below the knees. The Star of David can be made with two of these equilateral triangles. This star symbolizes both the male and female elements. The upward pointing triangle is male and the downward pointing triangle is female. In the first diagram at the beginning, the downward pointing triangle contained the child or seed. How interesting, that a surveying device could give such results.

The triangle making up Lugh’s torso and arms always reminds me of the Temple Roof, and when you lift off the roof, what appears is a geometric formation of the compass, which on Masonic devices is supposed to be open at 60°.


The Equilateral Triangle

“This symbol, while perhaps more emphatically presented to the Royal Arch Mason than to the Master Mason is, nevertheless, a possession of the Master Mason and one that, however unobtrusive the references to it may be, is by no means absent from the Master’s Lodge. Exoterically the Equilateral Triangle is presented by the Compass of the Square and Compass as, when that symbol is open to the extent of sixty degrees (as it should be) and a third, and connecting side, connecting the legs, is supplied, we have presented the Equilateral Triangle. Again, when the Three Lesser Lights are placed about the Altar they define the Equilateral Triangle.

From time immemorial the Equilateral Triangle has been preeminently the symbol of Deity. For the Triangle is the primary figure from which all others are built up and the Equilateral Triangle, being wholly symmetrical, is the one perfect Triangle, and thus clearly becomes the symbol for the Perfect Being in which all things find their beginning.” (1)

The Triangle appears in Masonry in two forms, the Right Triangle, i.e. that Triangle which has one of its angles a right angle, ninety degrees, or one-fourth part of a Circle, and the Equilateral Triangle, i.e., that Triangle which has all its sides equal, each to the other, and, of course, has each of its angles equal to sixty degrees.  Although these two Triangles have, symbolically and historically, certain features in common, for example, both were used by the Egyptians and both present the significant number Three, yet their symbolic suggestions are in these respects so different that they may, not improperly, be considered as distinct symbols.” (2)

This formation of the Temple Roof and the Compass shows up at Nabta Playa, Egypt also, but since this egg-shaped circle was built  c6000-4000 BCE, this was long before this sort of geometry was used to create the Trilithon Horseshoe. Quite old by then in fact.


Stonehenge itself sits at one corner of an equilateral triangle which was discovered on the landscape by Sir Norman Lockyer (Astronomer-Royal). The sides are six miles long, Grovely Castle and Old Sarum sit at the other two corners. Grovely Castle likely started life as a sighting tump, it’s on the ley to the Grove. Below is part of a map found at Ancient-Wisdom co. uk., it shows the St. Michael’s Ley and several others. I’ve been busy stringing lozenges on it, with sides six miles long, and angles of 60° and 120°. The two lines of incidence, the St. Michael’s Ley and the Apollo/St. Michael Line give these angles where they cross over one another. On the map, the black line is the St. Michael’s Ley, which is not perfectly straight from one end to the other, which is likely due to the terrain, but I strung a line from St. Michael’s Mount to Yarmouth. The two lines cross at Big Rings, which also sit dead centre on a conjunction of the Net. I strung the Wessex lord’s large gold lozenge on the map just out of curiosity. I have not had the opportunity to investigate this whole area further.



The next line east of Big Rings, will take you NW to Droitwich, then on through Ludlow, and on to the pass through the Clee Hills into Wales. On top of Titterstone Clee Hill there is a modern triangulation pillar, but just to the left of it, there’s a Bronze Age cairn. From the Clee Hills you can see Snowdonia, Cadair Idris, the Brecon Beacons, the Black Mountains, The Long Mynd, Stiperstones, Corndon Hill, Radnor Forest, the Cotswolds, Clent Hills, Turner’s Hill, Barr Beacon, the West Midlands, Cannock Chase, the hills of the Peak District, The Roaches and Winter Hill. Seems those ancient surveyors were just as interested in this spot as our twentieth century surveyors. It certainly gives high views and long sight.



The device of lozenges inside lozenges can be found on a beaker from the West Kennet Long Barrow c2400 BCE, on the two gold lozenges found in the Bush Barrow. There are triangles close to the rim and several rows of cording on the beaker. This is the typical shape of Beaker pottery. At the moment it is being debated whether there were Beaker people, or whether this beaker style became very popular and spread all around. Since most beakers are between 6-8 inches tall, I’ve often wondered if this was a measuring device. In most ancient societies, any grains were held by the ruler and the temple.  It was given out at a central location. On Malta their grain was ground in the temple.


Lozenges inside of lozenges can be found on the Folkton Drums, c 2300 BCE, they also have the Akhet on them. These chalk drums were found buried with a child in a tumulus which was a way marker through the Dales. The picture looks like a face between two mountains. The mouth is the lozenges inside one another, and the nose and eyebrows look like a big winged bird. Part of the Net is in the foreground on the small drum, and it looks like a chess board lying diagonally. The hidden secret symbol is also there. Lugh is said to have invented fidchell or chess. On one side panel there is an eight point wind star , and on top of one there are four spirals, the Four Pillars of the Earth. The people who buried this child gave him the means to find his way around in the Otherworld. His drums gave him the means to announce himself. Since the lozenge is the centre of the hidden secret symbol, the mouth may have been emphasising the fact that this knowledge contained on the drums was a hidden secret. The only way for a secret to no longer be secret, is to tell someone. So a cautionary  note for this small child.


These drums are an example of two separate traditions joined together. The Egyptian Akhet, the face between the mountains, and the big winged bird could be either the Ibis or the Crane.  But the Net and the hidden secret symbol come from Ogham. Some of the other elements are connected to astronomy, the eight divisions of the year, and the four cardinal directions and their cross quarters. The cross quarters are very prominent, and make X, the Sacred Place. But if the X is made the cardinal directions, then the square they are in turns into the Square of Enlightenment. The cross quarters generally lie behind the cardinal points. The Four Pillar of the Earth are the four symbols of the Zodiac connected to Sunrise on the Solstices and the Equinoxes. The small drum has two circles with lines around them, connecting them together. Sun and Moon? The large drum has  one circle in the centre with circles around it. This would be the Ash tree, the one spot you stand in with high views and long sight all around. Here we have examples of primitive materials used, but the brains behind these devices, symbols, and art were extremely sharp. They are also a good example of ‘writing’ without an alphabet.

Regardless of how primitive the materials used, among the people connected to the building of the ancient monuments, there were those who were well versed in astronomy, surveying and higher mathematics. For an in-depth look at the astronomy, surveying and mathematics found, not only at Stonehenge but also at many other constructions in the area, and also the mathematical codes built into the large Bush Barrow gold lozenge, see the following.

Ancient Celtic New Zealand

D. P. Gregg, “The Stonehenge Codes”



Dion Fortune, “The Mystical Qabalah”

Liz and Colin Murray, “The Celtic Tree Oracle”

The Masonic Dictionary:

(1) The Builder – February 1919

(2) Brother Harold A. Kingsbury, Massachusetts

Wikipedia, The Clee Hills


Beaker and two gold lozenges from Wiltshire Heritage Museum

Part of the map of England,

Snail Shell from,

Folkton Drums, Ancient Celtic New Zealand

Diagram of the Nabta egg, D. P. Gregg, “The Stonehenge Codes”

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part IV

I’m kidding of course, about the snail’s head…………….sort of , but I don’t think he was included in the surveying, even though it fits nicely with everything else. This was the Dodmen’s Temple, and in England, a snail is sometimes referred to as a dodman. While watching a snail in his garden, Alfred Watkins wondered why they were called this. Then he noticed its antenna, which look like small sticks with balls on the ends.  And like all other antenna on animals, snails can move them around.  He realized that the ancient surveyors would have used staves for their surveying, and they would have been moving back and forth trying to get their sightings straight on. Their heads would have been the balls.

Snails are among the few species of animals which have both terrestrial and aquatic types. Snails also leave a luminous white trail. When the ancient surveyors created their track ways, they included flash ponds and beacon points along the way, making them luminous at night. The Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone likely had torches in some of the grooves at night, making it a beacon after dark. The Altar stone may have symbolized the start of this luminous trail.

Snails seem to have played a bigger part in people’s lives in ancient times, and not just to eat. They were used for jewellery, decoration on clothing and baskets, certain types were used for dyes, and likely for many other things as well. Such as ‘beaded’ curtains to go over doorways or windows. They give privacy while helping to keep out the insects and allowing in the fresh air.

The Aztec Moon god was, Tecciztecatl, and he had a snail’s shell on his back. Among the Aztec, snails were connected to the Moon and rebirth. But at Chichen Itza, there is El Caracol, The Snail. This very impressive tower was used as an observatory. The windows in it were used to observe the Equinoxes and the Summer Solstice. In Mesoamerica, there is also Viracocha, the Staff God, another astronomer/surveyor.

The Welsh word for a snail is, malwoden. That definitely caught my eye in the dictionary. Investigating a bit, I found that an obsolete meaning for, mal; it means, as or like. So, As Woden or Like Woden? No, woden, in the Welsh dictionary though. A modern meaning for, mal, is a mill. Isn’t there a saying, “The mill of time grinds fine”? If it was As or Like Woden, then it just means that its shell goes round and round just as the Sun seems to do to the Earth. The mill of time can also refer to the Precession of the Equinoxes, which also go round and round, only over a much longer period of time.

The 72 years which were being kept track of at Stonehenge had to do with precession. It takes 2150 years to pass from one sign of the Zodiac to another. When the original part of Stonehenge was built, the Sun rose in Taurus on  the Vernal or Spring Equinox, and all the other important days of the eight divisions of the year had their own sign in which the Sun rose. When Taurus gave way to Aries, all the other divisions of the year also shifted into a different sign. This shifting from one sign to another has always been viewed as a time of chaos, because suddenly all the seasonal sky formations were different. The most important were the two Solstices and the two Equinoxes. The Constellations the Sun rose in at those times were thought of as the Four Pillars of the Earth. When things moved from one sign to the other, the Pillars were thought of as collapsing, and a whole new framework would have to be constructed. The framework being the four new Constellations.

So the snail is not quite so silly after all, and is connected to astronomy. In the picture below, you can see how one looks all stretched out, the back-end of the body is narrower than the front. The Sarsen Circle sits right in the middle of the Station Stone quadrangle, which is narrower on the opposite side from where I drew his head.



The stringing on the diagram above may look a little over the top, but looking at the Dulcert Portolano, a map dating to 1339, I can see that this was used as a mapping device. Most of the old portolanos were constructed using much older maps. The Piri Re’is Map dates 1513 and shows Antarctica. The World Map made by Orontius Finaeus, dated 1531, shows all of Antarctica, and a great deal of it was shown without ice. The coast is shown as ice-free, and there are mountain ranges and rivers shown open to the ocean. This hasn’t occurred for thousands of years, and yet this map is fairly accurate according to modern scientific study, and must have been mapped by someone when it was in this condition. The Antarctic wasn’t discovered by modern mariners until 1820. The Piri Re’is Map shows all of South America in 1513, but Francisco Pizarro only went from Panama to Peru in 1530, and the Spanish never explored south or further inland for quite some time after. All of which goes to show that there were people sailing the oceans a very long time ago. At the moment, who they were is a mystery, but they do seem to have passed on their knowledge, since such details still show up in the 1500’s.

There is a theory about Earth crust displacement, which suggests that the Earth’s crust ‘slipped’ south, and that Antarctica, which seems to have had a temperate climate at one time, was displaced south by 2000  miles or 30° of arc. Everything else was displaced also, Europe would have slipped south and Alaska north. It’s known that Alaska and other places on Earth which are the frozen north now, where in a temperate zone, while a great deal of our current temperate zones were under ice. This sudden displacement may have caused the end of the last Ice Age, c11,000 BCE. There would have been massive flooding after, volcanos erupting and violent earthquakes. The land, freed from the heavy burden of ice, would have rebounded and heaved upwards causing more earthquakes, volcanos erupting and flooding.

These disruptive events may have continued intermittently for several thousand years, as the land settled into its new position. Doggerland started to sink lower and some flooding occurred, starting c6500 BCE. The Storrega Slide off the coast of Norway caused huge tsunami waves which flooded  large portions of Doggerland c6200 BCE. Only the area now known as Doggerbanks would have been left, and that would have been cut off both from England and the Continent. Within a thousand years Doggerbanks was totally flooded, and nothing remains of that very large piece of land, only Heligoland, the North Sea and the English Channel are there now. At one time this area may have been Europe’s richest hunting ground, many animals roamed this area. There were also marshes filled with all sorts of birds. People had settlements there, and likely many died in the tsunami. 

 It is in the period, starting c11,000 BCE, that mass extinctions of many animals occurred, and an almost mass extinction of mankind also. If there were already high civilizations before this episode, they were likely  wiped off the map, and mankind went back to a much reduced  way of living. But among the survivors, there must still have been mariners, astronomers, surveyors, architects, mathematicians, healers and other well-educated people, who continued to pass on their knowledge. The sky would have seemed in total chaos, absolutely nothing would have looked the same up there. Observations would have had to be made from scratch again. Just as mankind had to start from scratch again. 

We hear echos of those times in ancient legends which exist among all people on Earth. We also hear about The First Time, The Golden Age, when gods trod the Earth. But they were not gods, only survivors of a much higher civilization that once existed, possibly on Antarctica. In Egypt these people were known as the Neteru, they brought agriculture, animal husbandry, mathematics, writing, astronomy, healing and all higher learning. It took some time for everything to get rolling again, but once it did, sophisticated civilizations suddenly appear. As if by magic, mankind went from Stone Age hunters, gatherers and homestead type farmers, to building cities including houses, temples and palaces, filled with rulers, priests and priestesses. There was suddenly all types of art, writing, religions complete with a pantheon of gods, and a keen knowledge of mathematics, surveying and astronomy.

Returning to the diagram above, this Square of Enlightenment has 28 lines coming from each one of the corner posts, and going to 28 separate Aubrey holes. Even the Y and Z holes look as if they were laid out by these lines. The only place on this whole net where you can construct an equal angled octagon is around the Sarsen Circle. The other two eight sided figures are no longer true octagons, and don’t sit at line conjunctions very well, whereas the true octagon does, and so does Lugh. Any stringing mistakes are mine, not their’s. The ratio between the side of the square, and the long side of the larger rectangle, is the same ratio between an Egyptian royal cubit and a common cubit. This is really not that surprising, since a great deal of Egyptian mathematics has been found there. “The Stonehenge Codes”, by D. P. Gregg deals with this in great detail.

Since this is a mapping device, and such detailed maps were usually only used by mariners in ancient and not so ancient times, it would seem that there is just a little more than a faint smell of salt water here. Stonehenge and Bluestonehenge are connected by the Avenue, and the Bluestones, which connects them to water and sailors. Even the way Lugh’s head was raised, is very much like hoisting a sail. Manannan was a sailor and merchant, so it shouldn’t be any surprise to find sea connections at Stonehenge. Ancient mariners were astronomers, that’s the way they made their way around at sea. Mariners also used to take sightings of the Sun’s position at noon, and at Stonehenge this sighting was done with the line of light which appears on the ground between Sarsen 11 and Trilithon 53-54 just before noon, not only giving them the time of day, but also giving them longitude, since the line of light sits N/S. The builders of Stonehenge were full of little tricks.

Although Lugh has the correct angles I found for him originally, one of his legs doesn’t quite make it to one of the Trilithons. However, the Trilithons were set up to correspond to major events of the Sun and Moon as seen from within the space of the Trilithon Horseshoe, and through the openings between the uprights of the Trilithons, and the openings between the Sarsen uprights in the circle. The Great Trilithon may have had a space of three feet between the uprights, but the other Trilithons only have 12-16 inches of space between the uprights. This narrowed the view considerably, and you would have to stand in one spot to see the Sun or Moon event through these openings. Each spot would have been different for each event, but because of the narrow opening, there would only be one place to stand for these sightings. One step ahead or one step back would take away the sighting.

The opening in the Great Trilithon is greater because the Summer Solstice Sunrise line does not correspond with the Winter Solstice Sunset line, although I am showing only one line. At Sunrise on the Summer Solstice, the Sun would cast the shadow of the Bluestone in front of the Great Trilithon through the opening. Winter Solstice Sunset appears between the Great Trilithon uprights, and the shadow of the Bluestone would be cast onto the Altar stone.

According to Gerald Hawkins, Winter Solstice Sunrise could be seen through the openings of Trilithon 51-52 and Sarsens 6-7. Summer Solstice Sunset could be seen through Trilithon 59-60 and Sarsens 23-24. Both maximums of the Summer Moonrise, that is the full Moon closest to Summer Solstice, could be seen through Trilithon 53-54, but the Minor position would show through Sarsens 9-10, while the Major position would show between Sarsens 8-9. On the other side, Midwinter Moonset could be seen through Trilithon 57-58. The Minor position through Sarsens 20-21, and the Major position through 21-22.

On the above diagram, are two more reasons why I think he is meant to be Lugh, at least at some point in time. The Winter Solstice Sunrise would have thrown a beam of light on his ankle. Lugh/Lugus was very popular among shoemakers, he was considered their patron. Among the Celtic artifacts, there appear ankle length pottery and metal boots. They have always been found singly and never  in pairs. They’re Lugh Shoes.

The Equinox Sunrise beam would hit him in the thigh. Lugh/Llue’s wife, Blodeuedd, and her lover Goronwy conspired to kill him. The only way he could be killed was if he had one foot on the back of a goat, and one foot on the edge of a bath tub. The spear to kill him had to have taken a year to make. Eventually they meet all the conditions and attacked Lugh/Llue, he was injured but not killed, instead he flew up into the air as an eagle. On Equinox Sunrise the shadow of one foot would be thrown onto the Trilithon, the goat, and the shadow of his other foot would appear on the Bluestones, the tub of water. The spear was the shaft of light, and since Blodeuedd is connected to Spring, this would make it the Spring Equinox Sunrise. This story may be connected to something which happened at Stonehenge when the Temple was being built. Someone may have wanted it to be Equinoctial rather than Solstitial. Obviously they didn’t get their way.

After stringing all their lines, they would have put small stakes at the corners of the octagon, and possibly at the corners of the smaller eight sided figure. Stakes would have marked the top point of Lugh’s  head, and at the angles of his hands and feet. All the Y and Z holes would have been staked also. They then took away all their lines except the red quarter and cross quarter  lines. A line would then have been strung between the stakes of the octagon and the other eight sided figure. Lugh and the Y and Z holes would just be left as stakes, no stringing required there.

In the following diagram, the red lines are the quarter and cross quarter lines. I then put in the black lines, two Aubrey holes away from each red line. Then I put in the blue lines, which sit half way between two black lines, and not on any Aubrey holes. This divides the circle into 32 pieces, and not all the angles are the same, some are larger than others. However, as can be seen, many of the lines are placed along the sides of Sarsen uprights, making me think they must have used this method to place them.


I came upon the idea for stringing the Temple after playing with a picture of Thoth. Zecharia Sitchin called this Thoth as the Winged Measurer, but I call it Thoth with the Winged Measurer. It’s the snake that has the wings. A snake can move straight or in a zig zag, and when it rests, it coils up. The measuring cord can be used straight or in a zig zag, and when you are done with it, you would coil it up. It has wings because you can take it anywhere, even across an ocean. Many snakes in Egyptian art symbolize the measuring cord, just another version of the strip of the whale’s back.




On the Gundestrup cauldron, the measuring cord is a ram horned snake. Cernunnos has one in his hand. The ram’s horns are connected to the age of Aries, and the bull in the bottom of the cauldron is connected to Taurus. The panels of the Gundestrup cauldron tell a story about astronomy and the calendar at a time when one Zodiac sign was close to changing from Taurus to Aries. Taurus is still alive though, and Aries is not yet in command. Manannan doesn’t seem to have been part of the Celtic mythologies in Continental Europe where the cauldron was made, so no strip of the whale’s back appears, but there is a whale in the panel of Cernunnos. Someone is riding on its back, and this little picture has always been a mystery, but it likely refers back to Manannan.

Everything I have discovered at Stonehenge, started with the Queen/Quin/Gwyn stone, and Wodin upside down on the Ash tree. After that, Thoth took a hand. In ancient times it was believed that if you asked Thoth for help, he would help you. When I was trying to draw the Trilithon Horseshoe with Lugh hanging there, I had a very frustrating time trying to get the perspective correct. Since I had been reading about Thoth at the time, I thought, “Well, Thoth old boy, if you’re still around, I could sure use a hand with this”. Half an hour later, I had the drawing done, without once having to change a line or erase anything, so I guess, Thoth gave me a hand, and has continued to do so. Not long after playing with the above picture, I discovered that I am now Ophiuchus and not Sagittarius any longer. Ophiuchus is the Snake Holder, which had me laughing quite hysterically, and yet……………it felt like a stamp of approval, as if Thoth had taken me under his wing.


Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”

Arthur Cotterell, “The Encyclopedia of Mythology”

Caytlin and John Matthews, “Encyclopaedia of Celtic Wisdom”

Charles Hapgood, “The Path of the Pole”

Charles Hapgood, “Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings”

Fernand Neil, “The Mysteries of Stonehenge”

Gerald S Hawkins and John B White, “Stonehenge Decoded”

Graham Hancock, “Fingerprints of the Gods”

Y Geiriadur Mawr, The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary

Zecharia Sitchin, “When Time Began”

Photograph of the snail,

Thoth with the Winged Measurer, “When Time Began”, Zecharia Sitchin

Groundplan for Stonehenge, Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Building and Works, England

Groundplan of the Sarsen Circle, “Stonehenge Decoded”, Gerald S Hawkins and John B White

Dulcert Portolano, Wikipedia

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part II

The Calendar at Stonehenge

The builders of Stonehenge I were using the Aubrey hole circle as a calendar, not just for keeping track of days and years, but eclipses and planets as well. They also kept track of a period of 72 years. This is close to the 71.667 years it takes to move through one degree of one sign of the Zodiac, but 72 years also figures in the cycles of Jupiter and Venus. It would take Jupiter 71.1708 years to go around the Sun 6 times. Venus goes around the Sun 8 times while the Earth goes around the Sun 5 times. It takes the Earth two days longer to complete this interesting cycle. Due to this ratio, Venus appears to draw a pentagram around the Sun every 8 years. The 5/8 ratio is also the Sacred Mean, Golden Section, or Golden Proportion, etc. This ratio can be seen in many things, including humans. Leonardo Da Vinci used this ratio in his artwork, the Vitruvian Man being an example of this ratio in mankind. Venus would take 72 years of 365.25 days each, less 18 days to complete 9 pentagrams around the Sun. The Saros Cycle was used in ancient times to calculate eclipses. This cycle was 18.03 years, 4 X 18.03 = 72.12 years.

There was a very close conjunction of Venus, Jupiter and the Sun at Stonehenge in 3133 BCE. They rose together, Venus at 52°  05′ 25.1″, Jupiter at 53° 24′ 52.6″, and the Sun at 54° 05′ 22.1″. These measurements were taken from the centre of each orb, and after the Sun was standing on the horizon. Venus was over the Heel Stone. The blue lines in the diagram below show the positions.


For six mornings these three rose close together, Jupiter slowly pulling ahead. That first really close day, Mercury rose almost two hours ahead of them, the Messenger of the Gods. Then Enlil (Jupiter), and his twin grandchildren Inanna (Venus) and Shamash ( the Sun) rose in a nice wee group. Five hours later Mars comes along, the rear guard, the warrior. The night before, the full Moon rose at 9:15 pm at the orange square, and the Milky Way was behind the Heel Stone, which had Menkalinan directly above it. All and all, it was quite magical, and it is easy to understand how whole histories became attached to these planets, the Sun and the Moon.

This event would be handy to start tracking the cycles of Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Mars and Saturn, he shows up late in the afternoon of the first day of the really close conjunction. Each one of those cycles could have been counted on the Aubrey hole circle, you would just have to know exactly where they all rose that day to start keeping track of them. One marker for each planet, and when they had each done their cycle, you would know how long it took for each one. A very handy device, the Aubrey hole circle.

The Friar’s Heel Stone is believed to have been named Freyja’s He-ol Stone at one time. He, is Welsh for, to sow, and ol means, track. So it is Freyja’s To Sow Track. Unless the word was actually, heol, which is an obsolete Welsh word for road. So it could be Freyja’s Road instead. Freyja has her root in the Sumerian goddess Inanna, who seems to have been the original triple goddess. She is connected to the planet Venus and the constellations Virgo ( Ab Sin in Sumerian), and Gemini. Her twin brother was Shamash the Sun god, her father was Sin, the Moon god, and her grandfather was Enlil, Jupiter.

There are other places which take in account Venus’ movements. Newgrange, in Ireland, Bryn Celli Ddu in Wales, and Maeshowe in the Orkneys. Likely there are other places in the UK and Ireland also which would have kept track of her. She was a favourite in Mesoamerica and South America, which do seem to have strange connections to things in the Middle East and Egypt. Astronomy was practiced heavily in that area, the Mayans and Incas are quite well-known for this.

The date of this conjunction fits very well with the beginning of construction at Stonehenge. At the moment, it is believed to have been started between 3200-3100 BCE. The purple diagonal line coming from the rectangle, shows the Winter Moonrise Minor point in 3000 BCE. Since this sight line had only moved about one-third of a degree by 2500 BCE, it was saved when the Temple was built. You could stand against Sarsen 1, and sight over Z1, Y1, Aubrey hole 1, and on to the two posts on the bank of the Avenue. This being Winter Moonrise Minor, it was an important spot. If the full Winter Moon appeared in this area, there would be an eclipse of the Moon and/or the Sun at both the Spring and/or the Fall Equinox.

Originally, I chose these Aubrey holes, thinking there may have been two cycles of 72 years being kept track of. If you were counting the years clockwise on the Aubrey holes, one cycle would go from Aubrey hole 1, all the way around the circle and on to Aubrey hole 16. This would be 72 years. The second cycle could have started at Aubrey hole 29, and ended after 72 years at Aubrey hole 44. Finding out that this was Winter Moonrise Minor in 3000 BCE was both coincidental and highly surprising. I felt that there was something important about this rectangle and its diagonal, but the posts on the bank are not numbered or lettered, and no one ever seems to mention them. However, the diagonal line cuts the corners of the rectangle into 48° and 42° angles, a ratio of 8/7 = 1.1428571, which is the same ratio as the maximum Earth-Moon distance/minimum Earth-Moon distance. Seems those posts on the bank were important after all, very important.

Astronomy had been practiced there for several thousand years before the Aubrey hole circle was created. Those first posts on the Equinox line attest to that. Just because there was no megalithic building going on in 7000 BCE,  doesn’t mean that these people weren’t using some other sort of markers for all those important events. Important events and the heavenly bodies used as points of reference have changed over time, it would be impossible to say just what these people kept track of.

Large portable rocks may have been used instead of permanent markers, just as they may have been used at other henge monuments containing no large standing stones. They aren’t there anymore because they were probably removed to be used for something else. These people didn’t just build the Aubrey hole circle on a whim, they were well-educated in astronomy and surveying. The very first line strung for the Aubrey holes was on the Equinox line. This henge monument may just have been a technical improvement, rather than the beginning of astronomy there, which seems to have been practiced there for four thousand years before it was built. Even the Windmill Hill people had been in the UK and Ireland for over a thousand years, perhaps two thousand. They would have been well acquainted with the night sky in that area by then.

This may be true for other henge monuments and stone circles. There are stone circles made out of boulders and henge monuments with no standing stones. They may all have started as plain circles made from large rocks and/or posts. The henges and standing stones being a later, more permanent version of the original. Stonehenge was just the most elaborate. Not all these circles have the same amount of stones, and not all stones seem to line up with anything happening in the sky, at least not that we’ve found so far. All of them were used for astronomy and calendar keeping, including the causewayed camps. Not all are circular, some are flattened on one side, others are egg-shaped. Some may have been very simple, keeping track of the Moon and the eight divisions of the year, while others may have been more elaborate with eclipse tracking. The Windmill Hill people seem to have been the originators of all of these, including the Temple at Stonehenge. We seem to be missing a very large portion of history in the UK and Ireland. Very important history.

All ancient astronomers kept notations of some sort, and in the UK and Ireland we may be seeing a standard practice. Build a calendar ‘circle’ for keeping track of the sky, then keep notations on a ‘circle’ drawn on bark, hide or a slab of Beech. This way the astronomer/surveyors could compare notes, so that they could gain more knowledge, not only about the sky, but how big the landmass was that they found themselves on. Unfortunately, their notations rotted away long ago, and their monuments have stood silent for thousands of years.

It’s quite likely that these places were used for more than astronomy, such as rituals to do with the festival days, marriages, last rites, etc. They may have been weekly market places, clinics, law courts, or perhaps meeting places for clan chiefs and their retainers. Perhaps they were considered neutral ground. Circle casting traditions likely had their beginnings with these places. When circles are cast, they should be thought of as bubbles standing outside of time, a place separate from the surroundings, which is what all henges do, they separate the area within from the area surrounding it.

The Aubrey holes have always remained a mystery. Cremated remains were found in many of them but not in others. Great pains were taken to place these holes the same distance apart, although they are not all the same diameter, and they were not all placed in the correct spot. But that’s only human, I suppose. It isn’t known whether any posts made of wood or stone ever stood in them, although they did use some of them when they surveyed for the Temple. There is a debate about this subject at the moment, because it is thought that one of the holes has compacted chalk at the bottom. The hole in question is Aubrey hole 7, which has recently been excavated again. This has led to the theory that Bluestones once stood in them. However, since Aubrey hole 7 was used to hold a post in connection to laying out the Temple and the Y and Z holes, this compacted chalk could just as well have come from a wooden post, they didn’t need the Bluestones for that. Either way, it makes no difference to the calendar.

First let’s look at the number 56 which is an interesting one. It can be divided 2 x 28, 4 x 14, 8 x 7. It also gives the 19, 19, 18 and 10, 9, 9 cycles associated with eclipses there. 6.5 x 56 = 364 which is only one day short of one calendar year.

The Winter Moon travels back and forth across the Avenue over a period of 18.6 years. When standing in the centre of Stonehenge today, and sighting over D or F, the full Winter Moon appears at these locations in a cycle of 19, 19, 18 years. It appears over the Avenue in a cycle of 10, 9, 9 years. If the full Moon closest to the Winter Solstice appears either over D or F, there will be an eclipse of the Sun and/or the Moon at the time of the full Moon closest to the Spring and/or Fall Equinox. If the full Moon closest to the Winter Solstice appears over the Avenue within a space of about 7°, there will be an eclipse of the Sun and/or Moon at the time of the full Moon closest to the Winter and/ or Summer Solstice. There was an eclipse of the Moon there on June 25, 1964 which appeared between the uprights of the Great Trilithon, or at least it would have if one of its uprights wasn’t lying on the ground now.

The above markers, D and F, were not being used for this sighting in 3000 BCE. Winter Moonrise Minor was on the purple diagonal line and Moonrise Major, which sits almost 20° northwest has no marker at present except the end of the inner bank. The midway point would have been to the right of post hole 3A. Summer Solstice Sunrise would have occurred to the right of post hole 4A. The Heel Stone would have been a quarter mark, 5° from the Moonrise Minor point. If the Moon was travelling back northwest from its Minor position, once it got to the Heel Stone, it would be in the zone for eclipses. But the Heel Stone also kept track of Venus, which passes between the Earth and the Sun every 584 days. Ten times around the Aubrey hole circle plus 24 days. It was likely used to keep track of Jupiter, and perhaps the other planets and major stars. These people seem to have liked multi purpose things.

So how did they do it? The years were counted clockwise on the Aubrey holes, starting at Aubrey hole 1, and the days were counted counter-clockwise on the spaces between the Aubrey holes. In this counting of days, the Aubrey holes represented Sun up (a day spot), and the spaces in between represented Sun down (a night spot).

Before any counting started, the operators would have to wait for the proper day. In Gerald S. Hawkins’ book “Stonehenge Decoded” there are tables showing eclipses of the Sun and Moon for a period of years between 1592 BCE and 1452 BCE. (1) (2) In that time period there were three eclipses of the Sun on June 21st. 

My guess is that they started their count  on the evening of June 21st, close to a day or night of a Solar or Lunar eclipse, starting a cycle of 10, 9, 9 years, which would mean that the full Moon the winter before would have been over the Avenue in the danger zone. In 3154 BCE, there was a partial eclipse of the Sun on June 21, this may have been their starting day. Since the biggest reason for watching out for eclipses in ancient times, was to make people believe that the shaman/priest/priestess controlled this event, not only would the population be awed at this display, but it would give the perfect start for the operators, particularly since it was only a partial eclipse. Wonder, did the ones in charge brandish their green stone axes at it? But that story is for another time.

During the first year of our lives, only the days, weeks and months are used to give our age. We don’t turn one until 365 days have gone by. And so it was at Stonehenge.

So let’s begin. On the first day, June 21, the Sun came up, and that evening a marker was placed between Aubrey holes 28 and 27. Aubrey hole 28 represents the first Sunrise, Aubrey hole 27 the second Sunrise. The marker between the holes was used to count the days. Three and a quarter turns counter-clockwise around the circle from the starting point 28-27, will put the day counting marker between holes 15-14. You have now counted 182 days. The next evening your day marker will be between 14-13. The next morning you will have the Sunrise of the Winter Solstice. Today, from Station Stone 93 to H marks the Sunrise of the Winter Solstice. H sits between 14-13. In 3000 BCE this event would have happened a few degrees to the northeast, but your counter would still be at H, letting you know that this was the Winter Solstice. There would have been plenty of time to get prepared for the festivities, since the folks in charge could have told everyone how many days it would be until Winter Solstice.

Six and a half turns around the circle from the starting point 28-27, will put the day counting marker between 1-56. As the operator of this calendar, you will know that 364 days have gone by. One more day and you will have completed one year. Every four years, two days would be added to make up the leap year. This would keep the calendar almost in line with the 365.2422 days of the correct time of one Solar year. On evening 365 of the first year, a marker is put at Aubrey hole 1, this is to mark the first year. Every year after completing the count for one year, the day counting marker goes back to its original position between 28-27. The markers counting planetary cycles would continue on, until they had figured out how long each cycle was. Some cycles are short, such as Mercury and those would have been counted in days, but as soon as they had figured out the 11.86 years for Jupiter, they would switch to counting its cycle in years and days.

However, if you add a day every four years, your calendar will end up going off course, because the difference between 365.25 days and 365.2422 days would add up to one whole day after 128 years. The following is from Secrets of the Pyramids by Peter Tompkins:

“The present calendar derives from the early Romans, who had a 10-month year of 334 days, hence our September, October, November, December. In the seventh century B.C. Numa Pompillus is credited with adding January and February for a lunar year of  354 days. The shortage of 11 1/4 days caused the seasons and the calendar to diverge to the point where Julius Caesar was obliged to add 91 days to 46 B.C. and succumb to the suggestion of Cleopatra that he adopt the Egyptian civil calendar of 365.25 days. Even so, the difference between the civil calendar and the actual solar year of 365.2422 days adds up to an extra day every 128 years, which obliged Pope Gregory XIII to drop 10 days from 1582”

Since 72+ 56 = 128 there’s a good chance that the people at Stonehenge were omitting the leap day in year 128. They may have had two cycles of 72 years going. One marker would have been used for the first 72 years, going from Aubrey hole 1 all the way around the circle and stopping at Aubrey hole 16. At the end of year 73, a second marker would have been placed at Aubrey hole 29 to begin a new 72 year count while the first marker is busy counting to the 128, which it will achieve when it gets back to Aubrey hole 16. Every time year 73 comes around, the new marker will change starting holes. First cycle starts at Aubrey hole 1, the second cycle at Aubrey hole 29, then 1 again, then 29 again, etc.

I think they may have done just that because of the way the Aubrey hole circle is laid out, and that magic number 56, which comes in so handy, 6.5 x 56 = 364 and 72 + 56 = 128. Venus, 584 days, (10 x 56) + 24 = 584, eclipse cycle 19 + 19 + 18 = 56, or (10 + 9 + 9)  x 2 = 56. The ancient Mystery School number sixteen, 16 + 56 = 72.

The red dots are the four Station stones, two of which have mounds and ditches, unlike the other two plain Station stones. The green dots belong to the eclipse cycles, and the blue dots are the two 72-128 year spots. The period of 10, 9, 9 years has been mentioned in connection to the eclipses. If the year count started at Aubrey hole 1, then Aubrey hole 10 lies just before Station Stone 91. Nine more years would put you at Aubrey hole 19 which lies on the ditch on the SW side of Station Stone 92. The next 9 puts you at Aubrey hole 28, and the next 10 at Aubrey hole 38 which lies SW of Station Stone 93. Nine more years will put you at Aubrey hole 47 which lies close to the ditch to the NE of Station Stone 94. Nine more years puts you at Aubrey hole 56. For the first 72 years, one marker counted days, a second marker kept track of the years. Although there is more to eclipse cycles besides keeping track of the 10, 9 9 and 19, 19, 18 years, most of that could have been kept track of just by observing the position of the full Moon at the time close to Winter Solstice.

If the full Moon at Winter Solstice indicated that there would be an eclipse the following Equinoxes or the Summer and/or the Winter Solstice, it is possible to watch the time between Moonrise and Sunset. In 1964, Gerald Hawkins knew that there would be an eclipse of the Moon on June 25, he noticed that the time between Moonrise and Sunset became shorter by almost an hour every day, until the evening of June 24, when the Moon rose just 15 minutes before Sunset. Six hours later there was an eclipse of the Moon around 2 am, June 25. A quote from Hawkins:

“It seems most probable that the Stonehengers noted and made use of that moonrise-sunset time relation to predict eclipses. Compared to the task of determining the eclipse year and month by use of the Aubrey holes and rise-set directions, the foretelling of the night and hour of the event by observation of the difference in time between moonrise and sunset would have been easy.”

This time difference holds true for a Solar eclipse also. If the Moon rises too long before Sunrise, the Sun doesn’t have time to catch up to it. If it rises after Sunrise, then there will be no eclipse. If the Moon rises too far to the left or right of the ecliptic, on which the Sun sits, there will be no eclipse. By combining their observations of the Winter Moon’s position over the Avenue, keeping track of the years, and watching when the Moon rose and the Sun set, for a Lunar eclipse, and watching how long before Sunrise the Moon rose, would give them plenty of information to predict the eclipses. They wouldn’t need to be calculating the exact number of days.

After the first 72 years, the marker would be at Aubrey hole 16, and some sort of tally mark would have been placed here to keep track of these periods of 72 years. Since each sign of the Zodiac takes up approximately 30°, it takes approximately 2160 years to pass through one sign of the Zodiac. Although 72 and 2160 years are usually given, the actual time is closer to 71.667 and 2150 years, but in ancient times 72 years was fairly standard. In mythologies and religious texts, this number 72 is mentioned again and again. Pieces of chipped flint about the size of a fat cigarette were found with the cremations in the Aubrey holes. These may have been their tally sticks. Since Aubrey hole 16 lies NE of Station Stone 92, it would be easy to stick one of these tally marks in the chalk of the ditch surrounding this Station Stone. If you were using two cycles of 72 years and your cycle started at Aubrey hole 29, you would end at Aubrey hole 44 where there is a ditch and mound surrounding Station Stone 94 also. After placing 15 tally sticks in the ditch at Aubrey hole 16, and 15 tally sticks at Aubrey hole 44, you will have completed one sign of the Zodiac.

Using the above method would put you ten years passed the completion of one sign of the Zodiac, but the constellations connected to these signs don’t all take up equal amounts of space in the sky. These people may not have been using our constellations. They were well enough acquainted with the night sky  if they needed to make an adjustment at some time. This is only a very simple calendar, but these people were likely keeping track of the planets and other prominent stars also. I just haven’t ferreted them out of the astronomy program yet. I’m still working on the eclipses, for which I think they may have had a special device constructed.

The people whose cremated remains are in the Aubrey holes, were quite likely the people who kept track of the calendar, and they were likely the teachers. I would think this inside area would be reserved for those people who worked there. In fact, only certain people may have been allowed into the complex. School for young Dodmen, astronomers, counters, sailors, geologists and ‘travellers’. The travellers being people of a certain class, looking to gain new knowledge. Geologists, because the first thing educated people do when arriving in a new, practically empty land, is look for the wealth. At that point special types of rock and ores were being looked for. Ruis or Rowan, one of the Ogham letters, was used for metal divining. Sailors because you need them to catch fish, and for trade, particularly if you are on an island. It’s easier to sail around the coast, looking for rock, than it is to do so on foot. Sailors came with the Windmill Hill people, and likely stayed sailors, whether to go back and forth across the Channel, or scout around the coast, and fish too while they were at it. But sailors needed to understand astronomy, and navigation, which they could have learned at Stonehenge.

When the big white bank was new, it was at least six feet high. This would be an extremely good backdrop for those people learning their first lessons in surveying. There would be no background distractions, and the place was big enough to construct almost any type of geometrical configuration. Perhaps the Aubrey holes were used for that also. The great white bank gave privacy, this type of knowledge wasn’t meant for everyone at that time. All these things would have been part of the Ancient Mysteries, most of which were closely kept secrets.

A few spearmen would have kept guard at the fairly narrow openings. I don’t think any kids were playing football in there. It’s possible that no festivities went on there at that early stage. There are no traditions of dancing taking place at Stonehenge as there are with some other circles, but it would be a great place to learn about surveying and astronomy. Stonehenge was a serious place from the beginning, all the fun stuff took place elsewhere, at least until the Temple was built. Then it became very popular with the population.

The people who designed this place were incredibly clever with numbers and astronomy, but the people operating the calendar just needed to keep count of the separate cycles. Many other things were marked on the circle. For instance, when your marker was at H, the Winter Solstice Sunrise happened the next morning. The mounds and ditches around the two Station Stones were there to keep track of the 10,9, 9 and the 19, 19, 18 year cycles, and the 72 -128 year cycles. In the 10, 9, 9, cycle, the first 10 is before a plain Station Stone, the first 9 is SW of the mounded Station Stone 92. I’m surprised that there is no marker at Aubrey hole 28, this would tell you when you had completed the first 10, 9, 9. As you carry on, the second 10 in before a plain Station Stone again and the second 9 is NE of the mounded  Station Stone 94. These mounds and ditches around the two Station Stones would also help you to know when you had completed the 72-128 year cycles. If your cycle started at 1 then after 72 years, you would be at Aubrey hole 16, NE of the ditch around Station Stone 92. If you started your cycle at Aubrey hole 29, you would be at Aubrey hole 44 which lies SW of Station Stone 94. The markers for each separate cycle would be on opposite sides of these Station Stones.

The people, who were the architects of Stonehenge, knew exactly what they were going to do before they ever started. After all, they had several thousand years to figure out all the astronomy involved. No one stood around scratching their head at any time, wondering what to do next. This whole complex could have been built in less than two months. It is estimated that 3500 cubic yards were removed from the ditch to create the inner bank. After experimenting with this, it was found that one man could remove one cubic yard per day, and probably only one helper would be needed to move the chalk, since the digging wasn’t exactly speedy. With a hundred men digging and a hundred helping, the bank could have been finished in thirty five days, weather permitting. The surveying for the Aubrey holes may have taken a week, after which other men could have started digging these and creating the mounds and ditches for Station Stones 92 and 94.

There may be something in the Welsh language which comes directly from Stonehenge. English, week = Welsh, wythnos, which means eight nights. It is understood that it is the days in between which are counted. Since the day counters were not moved until Sundown, and if one looks at Station Stones 91-92, it can be seen that there are eight nights with seven days in between. The word for fortnight in Welsh is pythefnos, which is a contraction of pymtheg nos, fifteen nights with fourteen days in between them. If you swing the line 91-92 NE or SW, and include the original set of seven days between eight nights, you get fifteen nights with fourteen days in between. At this point I have to question whether fortnight is a contraction of the Anglo-Saxon fourteen nights. What if it actually started as a fourth night, a two week period will give you one-fourth of the Aubrey hole circle.

The whole thing was ingenious, took a minimum of labour, used the most basic materials and was environmentally friendly as well. The most amazing thing about it, is that it could be started up again today, and we could use it just as the Neolithic people did. Gerald Hawkins called it a computer, but there is no computer in our modern lives which will last five thousand years. One thing these people seem to have been interested in was permanence.

The proof of this calendar lies in the Aubrey hole circle, and the way it was set up with its Station stones and its 56 Aubrey holes. Whether they ever had posts or stones in them at one time, doesn’t matter. The calendar could still be counted there. It all works like clockwork, is this a coincidence? I have my doubts. This would have been the most accurate calendar of its time.  I am totally in awe over the skills these people had. I think this whole place was unique to England. They were keeping a Solar calendar, a Solstitial one, whereas many other people were keeping a Lunar or Equinoctial one. However, at Stonehenge they were keeping track of the Moon as well as the Sun. When the Temple was built it was Solstitial, while in the Middle East we still find Equinoctial ones being built. The early Romans had a Lunar calendar, and not a very good one at that. I have to wonder whether Ahknaton knew of this place, and turned suddenly completely Solar.

(1) Gerald S. Hawkins and J. B. White,  “Stonehenge Decoded”

(2) G. Van den Bergh, “Eclipses -1600 to -1207”

D. P. Gregg, “The Stonehenge Codes ” (PDF)

Fernand Neil, “The Mysteries of Stonehenge”

J. Giesen, Sun and Moon Lozenge Applet

Y Geiriadur Mawr, The Complete Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary

Groundplan for Stonehenge from the Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Building and Works, England

CyberSky 5 used for the astronomy

Following the White Trail to Stonehenge Part I

                                                         The Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone

                                            Solving  the Riddle of the 56 Aubrey Holes

 While reading about the history and building of Stonehenge, I was reminded of a book by Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”. I had read this book with fascination many years ago. I must give credit to Mr. Watkins for my interest in Stonehenge. Particularly his mention of the Queen Stone, which originally started life off as a Gwyn Stone. Alfred Watkins discovered that this stone was named the Quin Stone on old estate maps. Cornish, Quin = Welsh, Gwyn. He seemed rather puzzled about it being called that, since  it is reddish in colour. Gwyn means white in Welsh, but also, holy. That fact puzzled me for a time until I learned that the same element could be found in gwy as in dwy. Although in modern usage, dwy, means two, an obsolete meaning for dwy is God. Names like Gwydion and Gwion came immediately to mind. There are several other obsolete words beginning with dwy, such as, Godliness, Godly, divine, divinity, holy, Goddess, etc. That explained why Gwyn meant holy, but what had a red stone to do with white?

Mr. Watkins was also good enough to tell us what was cut on each of the four sides of this Gwyn Stone, which is situated on the horse shoe bend of the River Wye. The word, Wye, is also connected to dwy and gwy. Geologists will say that the grooves on this rock are from weathering, archaeologists will say that they were made by archers sharpening their arrows. Alfred Watkins felt that they were cut by the hand of man, these grooves end at ground level. If archers did sharpen their arrows there, they only kept the message in good shape, the weather would have helped as well. This rock is square, with its corners turned to the cardinal points, and its faces to the cross quarters. That alone would tell you which direction you were travelling in. These squares with their corners turned to the cardinal points are still used on maps today. The stone has grooves on all four sides. Each side has an Ogham message on it. But it was the message on the SE side that was most interesting. It was the clue to unravelling some of the puzzling things at Stonehenge.

While I was reading “The Old Straight Track”, I was also becoming acquainted with the Ogham tract. I use Coll Hazel’s Ogham. The last five letters of the tract are called the Forfeda, and I have seen various examples of this, and the meanings of several of the letters are often switched around. However, Colin Murray’s seem to be correct, because of several intriguing things I have found.

This is not your ordinary ABC alphabet. Instead, each letter has many symbolic meanings attached to it. It was a semi secret language used only by the elite and the Druids among the Celts. It has been suggested that the Druids brought it with them when they came from the Continent to Britain and Ireland. However, Julius Caesar did say that the Druids started in England and then went to Gaul.

According to Bryan Sykes, the earliest ‘Celtic’ or proto Celtic people were the Windmill Hill people. The majority of the Celtic DNA found in the UK and Ireland, has its roots on the Iberian Peninsula, and has a history in the male line going back to Cro-Magnon. This is under debate at the moment, with others theorizing that it only goes back to the Neolithic. However, among them was a small strand from the eastern Mediterranean, and also a small strand from north Africa. Their DNA is different from the later Celts found around Lake Neuchâtel and the Hallstatt area, from which we get La Tène artefacts. La Tène is not far from Italy’s northern border, fairly close to the territory where the Ligurians lived. In fact, it is only one degree north to Lake Neuchâtel from Picollo San Bernardo.

Even though there may have been thousands of years between the movement of the Windmill Hill people into the UK and Ireland, and the Celts who are said to have descended from the Milesians, their DNA is similar. Among male descendents of these people, the clan of Oisin is most prevalent. Out of eighty five men tested in Wales, ninety two percent came from the clan of Oisin. That was the highest percent anywhere, including the Iberian Peninsula.

There are others who believe that the Ogham tract was started by the Gnostic missionaries in Ireland, but since I have found an example of Ogham dating 79 AD at least, and the Gwyn Stone is believed to date back to the Bronze Age, I have to wonder about this story. No one really knows how old it is or where it actually started. There has been an Ogham found in Egypt in Ramses VI tomb. The date for his rule was 1160-1148 BCE. One of the things said about the Druids is that they gained their knowledge from the ancient Dodmen who were in the UK and Ireland. These were the ancient astronomer/surveyors who created some of the earliest trackways known as leys.

However, it is interesting to note that the first trees to start growing in England after the last Ice Age were:- birch, pine, lime, elm, ash, oak, alder, beech, maple, hornbeam (oak family), elder (honeysuckle family); shrubs, holly and hazel, plus ivy and mistletoe. Around 3500 BCE there was a decline in elm trees, and it is believed that Dutch Elm Disease may have been the cause. In the Ogham tract we find:- birch, fir/elm, ash, oak, alder, elder, beech, holly, hazel, ivy, mistletoe and honeysuckle. The mistletoe shares a spot with heather and the letter is named Ur in the Irish Gaelic. I found this interesting since there was a city in Sumer named Ur.

It has been argued that this arboreal version of the tract could not have started in the UK because there was no Silver Fir there, but Ailim/Ailm means elm in Gaelic, not Silver Fir. Alfred Watkins found rows of fir and pine close to ancient sighting points. Such as the Constable Firs, ancient Ogham messages planted on the landscape. Although he never mentions Ogham, his theory was that these trees would have been replanted if one died. I think the replanting of these trees became a tradition, even long after people didn’t know about the messaging, that’s why they are still there today. People are very attached to their traditions. There was always a fir tree there, and there will always be a fir tree there, even if they no longer understood why there was a fir tree there in the first place, but this must have been very important at one time, since it was carried on. Single trees were planted also, and very long lived specimens, such as oak or yew, were used for this. It is possible that elm was replaced by fir and pine after the decline in elm trees. Silver Fir, Scotch Pine and elm trees have one thing in common, they’re all very tall, and since this letter symbolizes high views and long sight, that does seem to be logical. Since Alfred Watkins found rows of fir or pine near ancient sighting points, the trees were sending the message, high views and long sight ahead.

According to Irish legends, the first twenty letters were created by Ogma, the God of Eloquence, and also a Sun god. The last five symbols represent diphthongs, and are said to have been created by Manannan, a god of the sea, who is also connected to the Moon. Birch is said to be the first letter, because it was the first tree to grow after the last Ice Age. Who recorded this fact? Beith is Irish Gaelic for birch, but it is also named for Noah’s son Beith/Bith/Beth, and stands for “a new start, beginning”. Beth is the second letter in the Hebrew alphabet, but the first in the Torah, which starts, “In the beginning……..”

The trunk of the birch is white and is said to “lead the way”. Easily seen from a distance, even on a Moonlit night. On the SW side of the Gwyn Stone is the symbol for Birch, and it points toward Lands End. It has already been found that St. Michael’s Mount in Cornwall figures in the St. Michael’s Ley, and is on the St. Michael-Apollo Line which runs from Mount Carmel to Skellig Michel in Ireland. These leys are now referred to as ‘lines of incidence’. From St. Michael’s Mount, one could make a new directional beginning. Northwest to Skellig Michel, southeast to Mont St. Michel in France, where you can follow the line through France, several places connected to St. Michael in Italy, then on to Dodona, Corfu, and eventually make your way to Mount Carmel. From St. Michael’s Mount, Cornwall, you can follow the St. Michael’s Ley northeast into England, where you will find some interesting megalithic constructions, such as the Hurlers, Glastonbury Tor, Avebury, Silbury Hill, Big Rings and Waulud’s Bank. It runs a great distance along the Ickneild Way, and meets up with the Ridgeway Path, a track that goes back to the Neolithic. Some of the ‘Roman’ roads may have been constructed over much older roads and trackways. In some places, archaeologists have found much older ‘paved’ roads below the Roman ones. The ancient surveyors may have been responsible for the straightness of these roads, not the Romans.

You could follow the St. Michael’s Ley all the way to Yarmouth, and after a short period of sailing, be over on Heligoland and northern Germany, and various other areas in Scandinavia. This line may be much older than anyone realizes, since Doggerland once existed between the east coast of England and the west coast of Denmark, Germany, Holland, Belgium and part of France. It’s quite possible that this line started on Doggerland, and entered England at Yarmouth. Yat is an old Saxon word for road, track or ley, as in Symond’s Yat, which is not far from the Gwyn Stone. Gate, is another form of yat, and there’s Gateshead close to the border of Scotland, the head of the yat. Yarmouth is on the River Yarre, so obviously these names are connected, but perhaps, yar, was another form of yat. It would be easier to say Yarmouth, than Yatmouth. Yatshead and Yatmouth don’t seen to fit the mouth at all, whereas Yarmouth and Gateshead seem to roll off the tongue much better. Archaeologists have found evidence that Mammoth were once hunted off the coast of Yarmouth, and during the last Ice Age, only the south of England was free of ice. Hunters and gatherers trekked trough this area for millenia.

On the SE side of the Gwyn Stone is the symbol for Ash. It points in the direction of Stonehenge. The Ash of the Ogham tract is the Cosmic Ash, that which links together the microcosm and the macrocosm. The microcosm being the Earth, and the macrocosm being everything else out in space. Considering that it was also a very accurate calendar, the name becomes even more appropriate. Below are the twenty five symbols of the Ogham tract. The line on which all the letters sit, is called the strip of the whale’s back, but symbolizes the horizon. And that’s of, not off. I believe that the strip of the whales back also symbolizes the measuring cord. The rolled up strip was kept in the Crane Bag along with Manannan’s treasures.


The first twenty letters always remind me of shadows cast by a pole standing in sunlight. The last five seemed as if they should belong to surveying. X marks the spot, and a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. We still use the last of these on maps. The third symbol is two parallel lines, crossed diagonally by two more parallel lines, creating a diamond shape in the centre. Surveying is done by triangulation. The Hook, which when seen on the side of a staff, looks more like an ancient surveying or star watching instrument. The hook usually represented is so turned in on itself, that I can’t imagine hooking anything with it. As a surveying instrument it would be quite handy. Not only could you use it to sight with, but you could also carry a line along with you. That would be very useful if you were ‘stretching a cord’ at Stonehenge. If you had a few of them, your line wouldn’t be dragging on the ground. After all, someone had to make it by hand. The last symbol in this group looks like a net made up of squares. This net is not always the same in various Ogham tracts. I have three by three, this is what Colin Murray used, but I have seen two by two and four by four also. A three by three grid was also an emblem among the ancient Mesopotamians. It was named Bab-Ilu, the Gate of God. A four by four grid would be one quarter of a Square of Hermes, which is eight by eight.

These five symbols, are said to be Manannan’s treasures, and he kept them in the Crane Bag along with the rolled up strip of the whale’s back and the rest of the letters of the tract. The Crane Bag was made out of the skin of a white Crane. When the tide was high, the bag seemed full, but when the tide was low it appeared to be flat.This is an allusion to the Moon, so his treasures were visible at the time of the full Moon, but not at the dark of the Moon. Crane knowledge is shorthand for Druidic knowledge. St. Columba was said to be a Crane cleric because he was brought up in the Druidic traditions and understood Ogham.

After doing some more reading, I became aware that the colour white was also attached to many ancient monuments in the UK and Ireland. The banks at Stonehenge, Avebury and several other sites are white. Newgrange and Knowth were surrounded by white quartz. At Thornborough, the top layer of the banks was white gypsum that had been brought from elsewhere. The West Kennet Long Barrow was white, as well as Silbury Hill. The Long Man of Wilmington, the Cerne Abbas Giant, the various large depictions of horses are all white. Bran’s head is said to be buried at Bryn Gwyn, the White Mount, where the Tower of London stands now. Perhaps that should be the Holy Mount? After all, Bran’s head was buried there. And the hill at Glastonbury Tor, was it also white at one time? This adornment with white can be found over on the Continent as well, mostly white quartz or limestone was used. Where there is white quartz, there could be gold.

I wondered about the white Crane, and found that among its allies are the Ibis and the Egret. All long-legged wading birds, which all have white varieties. The flight profile of the Ibis is much the same as that of the Crane. Some Ibis have a curved bill, but Storks, which are Wood Ibis, have a straight bill similar to the Crane. Was Manannan’s Crane somehow connected to the Ibis headed Thoth? He was the Egyptian god of writing, mathematics, astronomy, surveying, equilibrium and healing. Were the original surveyors in the British Isles, Thothmen? In Welsh, Thoth would be spelled Ddodd. Did it then become Dod later? The ancient surveyors in the UK and Ireland are still called the Dodmen. The Ibis and the Crane were connected I found, they are just another version of the Constellation Cygnus. Many different birds seem to be connected to this group of stars. Ibis, Crane, Swan, Vulture, Goose, Gannet, and other water fowl, but mostly white with a little black in most cases.

There’s an interesting story among the Irish legends concerning Fintan, the Ancient White One. Because he is the oldest shanachies/seanchais in the group, he is asked to relate the history of the people of Ireland. He says that he was born before the Flood, and that he was married to Cessair, Bith’s daughter. Bith was supposed to have been another son of Noah, who is not mentioned in the Bible, but who figures in Irish legends. When Cessair brought her people to Ireland, the Flood overtook them, and they all died except Fintan. He survived by turning himself into a salmon. The salmon in Celtic lore ate the Hazels of Wisdom, and so by saying he turned into a salmon, Fintan is actually saying that he used his knowledge to survive. He recounts the various things that befell successive peoples who came to Ireland, but every time he himself survives. Eventually someone mentions how lucky he was to survive all that, since several thousand years have gone by. Fintan, the Ancient White One, replies, “Someone always survives”.

This story seems to be telling us that the line of seanchais in Ireland go back to Sumeria. It is in Sumer where we find the oldest Flood stories. I don’t mean to imply that Druidism went that far back, only that there does seem to have been a core of knowledge which was passed on from one generation to the next, usually to the priestly class, which usually passed from fathers to sons and daughters also. Ancient kings and their family members were often the priests and priestesses, astronomers and oracles. I call this the White Trail, and since Sumer is where we find the oldest advanced civilization, it probably started there. Anu’s White Temple is at Uruk, one of the oldest temples in Sumer.

There is a connection between Sumer and the UK and Ireland. Among the Windmill Hill people there were descendents of a woman whom Bryan Sykes names ‘Jasmine’. She was found at Mureybet in present day Syria, fifty miles southeast of Aleppo in what archaeologists say is the oldest farming community that’s been found to date. It isn’t very far from Gobekli Tepe either, which is now thought to be the oldest ritual/settlement complex dating c9000 BCE. At Mureybet, the grain these people grew was still the same as the wild grains their seeds came from. A thousand years later at Jericho, people were growing genetically altered grain. Grown over centuries of selective harvesting and planting of grain.

At that time, Mureybet would have been in the area of what became Sumer. Jasmine lived there c8000 BCE. Her descendents have been found on both sides of the Mediterranean, up into continental Europe, came with the Windmill Hill people, and were also found at Skara Brae. The goddess Freyja of the Scandinavians is said to have her roots with the Sumerian goddess Inanna, whose main temple was also in Uruk, very close to Anu’s White Temple.

The question is, did Jasmine’s descendents trek across land for three thousand years, or is it possible that some of the Windmill Hill people had a closer connection to the Middle East when they landed in the UK and Ireland?

This does now seem to be the case. Bryan Sykes has shown that descendents of Jasmine may have travelled by water, and that they brought farming with them.

Bryan Sykes:

” The presence of large numbers of Jasmine’s Oceanic clan …. says to me that there was a very large-scale movement along the Atlantic seaboard north of Iberia, beginning as far back as the Neolithic and perhaps even before that. …….The mere presence of Oceanic Jasmines indicates that this was most definitely a family based settlement rather than the sort of male-led invasions of later millennia.”

Their movement seems to have occurred at about the same time as the Cardium Pottery people, who are also considered to have been the first farmers in Europe. Their oldest pottery found to date was in Corfu, c6500 BCE, after which they moved along the northern coast of the Mediterranean, and were into the Iberian Peninsula and France by c5500 BCE. Most of their movement along the northern coast of the Mediterranean occurred within a period of 500 years. It is believed that they moved in groups by water, and created new settlements along the coast. They were also the earliest farmers in these areas, and seem to have introduced farming to other people. It has been suggested by archaeologists and other experts, that these people were sent out in groups to settle new places. Who exactly sent them is a mystery. Their pottery has also been found in Iraq, Palestine and Jordan. The culture which started in Mureybet, spread out, also moving into Iraq, Palestine and Jordan. Their remains have also been found on Mount Carmel.

However Jasmine’s descendents came to be among those seafarers who arrived in England, they came from an old farming tradition. By the time the Cardium Pottery people arrived in France, there was already herding of domestic cattle there, introduced by an earlier group of genetically related people to Jasmine. J (Jasmine) and T (Tara) are the only two haplogroups connected to the spread of herding and crop growing, they migrated into Europe sometime between c8000-6000 BCE. These two groups have a common background in JT and pre-JT. The place of origin of J and T was in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent c43,000 BCE.

At Tumulus Mont St. Michel in France, c6850 BCE, someone’s cremated remains were placed in a stone cist, along with 28 Fibrolite and 11 Jadeite axe heads, a Turquoise necklace and one of Jasper. The cist sat E/W on the Equinox line. It was also surrounded by fifteen smaller cists containing ox bones. It was then covered over, creating a tumulus. Eventually it was greatly enlarged, and up until the nineteenth century, people still built a bonfire and danced up there on June 21st. Over time Tumulus Mont St. Michel went from being Equinoctial, to being important on the Summer Solstice. The earliest known mining of Turquoise was on the Sinai Peninsula by the Egyptians. Iran, Cornwall, Saxony and Silesia are also mentioned as having Turquoise, but how far back it was mined in these areas, I haven’t been able to discover, nor where the Turquoise came from in the necklace.

This tumulus is close to Mont St. Michel which is on the St. Michael-Apollo line. The line runs through Liguria on the northern coast of Italy. The stone for the hand axes buried in France, came from the Ligurian Alps, and in Liguria we find the same mix of people as on the Iberian Peninsula, and parts of France. These people had something in common with the Windmill Hill people, and the people of many other places where early farmers show up. They built megalithic constructions. On the Picollo San Bernardo we find a stone circle, and in the nearby Aosta Valley a megalithic complex has been discovered.

Although some of the earliest megalithic constructions in Europe have been found in Portugal and Ireland, it seems to have spread very rapidly. Even Gotland has Neolithic structures dating c3600 BCE. Most of these can be categorized as complexes. They often include Dolmen, passage tombs and stone rows or circles. Most have been found to have astronomical alignments. Some having to do with the Moon, but others are also aligned to major events of the Sun, and also have possible connections to planets, stars and constellations.

The oldest stone ‘circle’ found to date is at Nabta Playa, Egypt, dating c6000-c4000 BCE. The circle is egg-shaped rather than round, but is believed to have been used for astronomy and calendar keeping. There are now claims that suggest Adam’s Calendar, made of dolerite, may date to c25,000 BCE. If this is correct, then Adam’s Calendar would be the oldest. However, a circle of small rocks or a plain henge could have been used for the same thing. The markers would have been portable stones to mark the important events, whether connected to the Moon, Sun, planets or stars. Some very early henges have been found in Cornwall, one of the earliest areas for mining metals in England. These were mined here before the Bronze Age started in England.

A henge is basically a large round area with a ditch and bank surrounding it. There’s generally one or two openings which allow access to the henge. It isn’t known what they were used for, but later stone circles where generally within a henge. Since most stone circles have astronomical significance, it’s not a far leap to suppose that a plain henge was used for this as well.

It’s a fact that a calendar can be created anywhere on Earth, using nothing more than a plain circle plus some markers for significant events, such as the Equinox, the shortest and longest day, or to track the movements of the Moon, planets and stars. They were often constructed in places where there was at least one major feature on the skyline, such as a hill of two where the Moon or Sun rose or set on a certain day. At Maeshowe passage tomb in the Orkneys, the Sun sets between two hills on the shortest day, and shines right into the passage. Maeshowe can be seen from the Ring of Brodgar and the Stones of Stennes.  These three are now considered a complex along with the Neolithic village of Skara Brae. Some of Jasmine’s descendents were found at Skara Brae.

I posed my original question about Jasmine’s descendents because there are some disquieting things among the ruins of the constructions left by the Neolithic people in the UK and Ireland. Their expertise of construction, astronomy and their knowledge of the calendar can be seen at Stonehenge and many other sites in these areas.

Skara Brae is also……………..odd. We are told by archaeologists that this was a village, but has more the feeling of a one story apartment building. We are told that the people who lived here were probably an interrelated family group. But there is something not right about this picture. I can understand that they would want to bar the outside door to the complex, but why was it necessary for them to be able to lock up each individual dwelling? Each dwelling had a low opening for a doorway, and a stone slab which could be fitted in the opening. Good for keeping out the draft, but there were also signs that there had been wooden bars to lock these doors closed. This sort of behaviour does not fit in with an interrelated family group in such an isolated place. Privacy in each dwelling could have been achieved just by hanging a piece of hide over the opening. This seems more the behaviour of strangers or strangers who were tenants?

There were people at Skara Brae long before these houses were built. They were built within a midden, and people had been there long enough to create quite a sizable heap. The inhabitants excavated the midden, and built their stonewalled houses inside of this. The remains of the midden then became the outside insulation, and stopped drafts or water from seeping in through the thick stone walls. The Skara Brae houses also had latrines with drainage to carry off the waste.

The whole place feels as if it had been transplanted from some other more densely populated centre with a higher standard of civilization. Skara Brae, after all, was a very long way from any high civilization at that time. How then did the people of Skara Brae come up with these ideas? And who exactly were they? And what exactly were they doing there? At present some archaeologists think the people who lived here may have been of the priestly class (astronomer/surveyors?) who were the brains behind the Ring of Brodgar, the Stones of Stennes and Maeshowe. At the moment they are busy digging what seems to be the remains of seven buildings, possibly a temple complex. Time will tell. There may be many other things lurking beneath the soil, or out under the lakes and off shore.

The problem with digging into ancient history is that one usually ends up with a multitude of questions. Stonehenge is one such example. It also becomes apparent that religion and astronomy do seem to go hand in hand the further back in history one goes. The oldest accounts of temple building usually mention “stretching of the cord”, and putting in the corner-stone of the building. It also mentions the fact that the buildings were aligned by Sun or Moon or stars, and that a special day was waited for before the dedication ceremony took place. Even when the temple was complete, the special day was waited for. Sometimes for months. This can be found in the account of Gudea, a Sumerian king who lived c2200 BCE. The reason for this, is that the temple was the place where the calendar started, and you would need a special day to do this. In the earliest temples, their first day was usually the Spring Equinox. This changed over time, from people to people. Usually by the order of some god. A god, or people from a higher civilization? Only where was that higher civilization?

At Stonehenge we see building in reverse order. First they built the calendar, then the temple. The first part of Stonehenge was a calendar and included the outer bank, the ditch, inner bank, the four Station Stones, their mounds and ditches, the Aubrey holes, a marker at the Heel stone, markers at F and H, the two posts on the right bank of the Avenue, which are not numbered or lettered, the posts marked A1, 2, 3, 4, and possibly other outliers. There are many positions on the Aubrey hole circle which at first glance relate to the Sun, but many of these spots are related to the Moon also. For instance, today, Station Stone 93 to H, marks Winter Solstice Sunrise, but it is also very close to the midway point of the 18.6 years travel of the Summer Moonrise. However, in 3200 BCE these positions would have been a few degrees to the NE of where they are now, but with this setup, they could count the days, years, keep track of the phases of the Sun and Moon, planets, constellations and eclipses.

The first thing that was done there, was a long period of observation. In fact, observations may have been taking place there since c7000 BCE, this is when the first posts to mark the Equinox were placed here. Another set of posts were placed on the Equinox line c6000 BCE. The locations of these two sets of posts are in the current parking lot, filled with concrete. Whoever placed Stonehenge on this spot may have been looking for this place on purpose. It is located at the only place in the Northern Hemisphere where the Sun and Moon have their maximum risings and settings at 90°. So that the Station Stone quadrangle could be created. The only other place on Earth where this can happen is close to the Falklands Islands in the Strait of Magellan. I wonder will some underwater archaeologist find another Stonehenge there some day?

While this long period of observation was going on, there was probably much cord stretching and rock placing. All you need to survey a place are some surveying instruments, some cord and some rocks or stakes to mark the important places. Two straight staves will do as surveying instruments. At first you can use small rocks to mark the appropriate points, no need for the heavy ones until you’ve found what you are looking for. They were not only looking for the Equinox line, but also the maximum risings and settings of the Sun and Moon. When the henge was constructed, they were already tracking eclipses, and this became part of the construction. They kept track of planets and significant stars as well. They were in the Neolithic, rocks are the most basic of markers.

My theory is that these people already knew all the significant positions long before they created the henge and the Aubrey hole circle. Boulders, large rocks or more posts may have been placed there early on. The henge and Aubrey hole circle were just a new technical improvement over just posts and large rocks. The Aubrey holes allowed them to create a permanent calendar, so that they could keep track of days, seasons, years, cycles of the planets and stars, and the eclipses.

 In diagram A, we see the first part of their surveying. First they put in the Equinox line, which runs from Aubrey hole 93 to F, although these two points may not have been created until later. Although I’m mentioning the Aubrey holes in connection to the lines, no Aubrey holes existed at that point, only the lines. Next they put in the line from Aubrey hole 28-56-A4. A4 is one of the four small posts on the Avenue. This was the Summer Solstice Sunrise line in 3000 BCE. Then they put in the line from Aubrey hole 14 to Aubrey hole 42, quartering the area and giving them a centre to work from.

The Station Stone quadrangle is basically a rectangle 12 units by 5 units, but dividing this again would give  24 units by ten units. Measuring out twelve units from the centre on both sides of the centre line, they strung two lines parallel to line 28-56. These are the black lines A and B.

The blue lines are the Major and Minor Winter Moonrise positions in 3000 BCE. The centre blue line which runs past post A3, is the mid-point of the Winter Moon’s travels. It takes 18.6 years to travel from the Minor to the Major points. Gerald Hawkins found that this movement of the Moon worked in a cycle of 19, 19, 18 years between the Minor and Major point. The Moon appears over the central line every 10, 9, 9 years, so twice as often than the other two points.

The green line over the Heel stone is 5° northwest of the Winter Moonrise Minor point 3000 BCE. Once the Moon traveled close to this on its way northwest, it entered the zone which was important to the eclipses of Sun and Moon. Eclipses which happened both at the full Moon closest to the Winter Solstice and at the full Moon closest to the Summer Solstice. This zone is approximately 7° wide, and between the green line running to post A2 and the green line over the Heel stone is the area where these dangerous Moons would appear. The green line from the Heel stone was drawn all across the circle as shown. This line was used to help set up the Station Stones.

The next step was to put in the Station Stones. At Aubrey hole 14, they measured 5 units NE and 5 units SW. This gave them the positions of Station Stones 91 and 92. From Station Stone 91, they drew a line parallel to line 14-42 all the way over to where Station Stone 94 would be placed eventually. This line sits at 90° to the Summer Solstice Sunrise line c3000 BCE. The line from Station Stones 92-93, sits at 90° to the green line coming from the Heel stone, which was at 5° northwest of Winter Moonrise Minor point c3000 BCE, and was the danger zone indicator of eclipses once the Moon had travelled northwest of here. The fact that they did this, shows that they were definitely taking into account the eclipses from the beginning when they built this place. We haven’t even come to the Aubrey holes yet.


 Diagram B shows the next step in the surveying. From the centre to Station Stone 93 was used as the radius of the circle. Diagram B is a copy of Diagram C which was originally drawn by hand, and after trying several points on the circle, I found that the centre to Station Stone 93 worked best, so I gather these points were used for the diameter. After creating the circle, they marked in the quarters and cross quarters of the circle at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56.These are the blue dots. The positions of the Station Stones were marked, these are the green dots. The black dot is F.

Since I’m neither a mathematician nor an astronomer, I have no idea about the theory that was used for the next part, but it worked very well. Some genius must have been at work here. One of the first markers on the Aubrey hole circle would have been F. Station Stone 93 to F is the Equinox line.

Once they had marked the circle for the Aubrey holes, they could then determine how far away they wanted to place the bank. Men could start digging the ditch to create the inner and outer banks. While this was going on, the surveyors started marking in the rest of the Aubrey holes.

They strung a line between Station Stone 93 and F. (green line) Then they measured the distance between Aubrey hole 56 and F, and transferred it to the northwest side, creating point A. Then they strung a line between A and Station Stone 92.

They transferred the measurement from A to F, to the SW side of the circle, using Aubrey hole 28 as the centre, creating points B and C.

Then they strung lines from B to Station Stone 91, and from C to Station Stone 94.

The resultant green diamond or lozenge has angles of 80° at Aubrey hole 56, 100° at Aubrey hole 42, 79° at  Aubrey hole 28 and 101° at Aubrey hole 14. The difference in angles is due to the distance between the Station Stones being shorter on the northwest side than on the southeast side.

At this point they strung lines parallel to these lozenge lines at the cross quarters 7, 21, 35 and 49. (blue) The result being that they now had two parallel lines the correct measurement between three Aubrey holes. This configuration can be seen on the gold lozenge found buried with the Wessex lord in the Bush Barrow, which also has angles of 80° and 100°. The Stonehenge Logo as I like to call it. It’s at the very heart of the layout of the Aubrey holes. It has been discovered lately by J. Giesen that this beautiful artefact may have been used as a vernier for keeping track of all the Major Sunrise and Moonrise events. The Wessex lords belt hook is a quadrangle, just like the Station Stone quadrangle.


                                                               The Bush Barrow Lozenge

Then they divided the distance between these Aubrey holes and drew their central lines. This gave them three Aubrey holes at each cross quarter. It was only at those positions that they were able to arrive at the correct measurement between Aubrey holes.


 Once they had the correct measurement, they could put in the three Aubrey holes at each of the four quarters of the circle, using 14, 28, 42 and 56 as the centres.

All the red holes are the ones left over after all this stringing. This left four pie shaped pieces with three Aubrey holes each, and four pie shaped pieces with five holes each. For the ones with three holes, they likely divided the angle in two and then in two again. For the sections with five holes, they divided the angle for the central hole, and then used their previously found measurement for the next two Aubrey holes on either side of this central one. And, voila, we have 56 Aubrey holes, and the Wessex lord’s gold lozenge may be proof that this was the method used to lay out these holes.

The Forfeda


It is my belief that the last five letters of the Ogham tract, called the Forfeda, had their birth at Stonehenge. By joining Aubrey holes 28/56 and 14/42 they had created X since these positions sit almost NE/SW and SE/NW.

By joining Aubrey holes 49-7, 7-21, 21-35, and 35-49 you create a square whose corners sit almost N, S, E and W. Now you have a square with its corners turned to the cardinal points. That Square of Enlightenment.

The basic configuration for this layout was started with two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines. The green lines and then the blue lines.

The Hook was the surveying instrument used, and the line was the measuring cord.

They did create the Net, and even though it was not three by three squares, it is still Bab-Ilu, the Gate of God. In this case, it may have been the Sun god’s gate or possibly the Gate of Min, who was a very early Egyptian Moon god, whose festival day was the Summer Solstice. After coming to understand what happens in the area of the Avenue, I can see that this had as much to do with the Moon as the Sun, and highly important for predicting eclipses. Min is one aspect of Khnum, Khem and Thoth. One of Min’s devices was a disk inside of a crescent which is lying on its’ back. I have seen this device over Thoth’s head in several pictures, and I have read that this device is carved at Gobekli Tepe. After delving into ancient Egyptian history, I discovered that there had been a movement of people who migrated from Egypt into Sumeria c10,000-c9000 BCE. It’s thought that these people brought farming to ancient Mureybet and the rest of the Fertile Crescent, and that they were responsible for building Gobekli Tepe. Considering that Min’s device made it to Gobekli Tepe, this could to be correct. The people who built Gobekli Tepe seem to have been very advanced for their time. The stone carvings there are highly unusual for that time period.

Lets look at what these symbols represent.

X is named the Grove, a sacred place. All the knowledge, which represents all the other symbols of the Ogham tract, can be found within the Grove. Each tree and plant symbol holds its own knowledge, and so the Grove contains all this combined knowledge. If Stonehenge was the Grove, then many things may have been going on there, including healing, since almost all the trees and plants in the tract have medicinal uses.

The square with its corners turned to the cardinal points is named Oir or Spindle, but it has an alternative name, Tharan or Thunder, but it is the lightning which is referred to. Just as a flash of lightning will illuminate the night sky, a sudden flash of inner enlightenment may light up a prickly problem which you have been dealing with. These sudden flashes of insight often lead to new inventions, discoveries, and ideas. But Oir is also connected to perseverance in the face of a difficult task, which is generally what you need for a prickly problem. I call it the Square of Enlightenment, and it was used at Stonehenge in an other very interesting way which I’ll write about at another time. Whoever dreamt up that idea was certainly enlightened.

It is this same square with its corners turned to the cardinal points  which we find in the Queen/Quin/Gwyn Stone, which is also a square of enlightenment since it shows the directional quarters and cross quarters, and tells you what lies in the four cross quarter directions. Spindle wood was used for spindles, bobbins and pegs among other things. The Gwyn Stone is a peg in some ancient surveying, a surveyors trig point. Since it stands six and a half feet above ground and seven and a half feet below ground, it was well pegged. Not likely to move anytime soon.

The Hook is named Phagos or Beech, and symbolizes old knowledge, old writing, which suggests that astronomy and surveying have a long history. Considering that many cave paintings are now believed to have astronomical notations, it goes back a very far way. After all, people were acquainted with the night sky for millennia. When people were hunters and gatherers, they ranged over huge areas. Each feature of the landscape, the Sun, Moon and stars became their map, and told them which part of the year they were in. Most hunters and gatherers had a base camp where they spent the colder part of the year. The positions of the stars, the Sun and the Moon counts, would have told them when to head back to their base camp. Vegetation would have been a seasonal marker, but raspberries and blueberries aren’t always ripe at the same time every year, that depends on the weather, but the Sun, Moon and stars are a constant. “writing” may not have been the original word used for this type of thing. Planting trees as messages could be considered writing. Just a different sort of writing than we are used to. The word, book, also comes from an old name for Beech. Long ago, thin slabs of Beech were used to write on, and connected together to form a ‘book’.

The Net is named the Sea, and symbolizes the sea, travel, maternal links and the Moon. Understanding lines of latitude and longitude, and their cross quarters, and also understanding astronomy would indeed give you the ability to travel in any direction, even by water. If ley lines, as described by Alfred Watkins, were established at that point in time, one could travel either by night or day. Mr. Watkins thought that some of the older trackways in the UK may have been established sometime between 4000 BCE and 2000 BCE. Ancient mariners used the Moon as well as the Sun and stars to navigate. If they were going any distance, these would become a seasonal marker for them as well.

The two parallel lines crossing two parallel lines is named Uilleand or the Honeysuckle, and symbolizes the hidden secret. Since the layout and use of the 56 Aubrey holes has been debated for many years, this formation remained the hidden secret for a very long time, five thousand years worth of time. The bird connected to this symbol is the Pewit. It nests on the ground, and when disturbed will fly up and away, thus creating a distraction away from its eggs hidden in their nest on the ground. I found this symbolism very appropriate for Stonehenge, where the general population would have been watching what was happening in the sky, and not paying attention to the Aubrey holes. When they were filled with chalk, they would look like eggs within a nest, the big white bank creating the nest. The Aubrey holes were the hidden secret as far as the general population was concerned, but this is where the operators of the circle did their counting of days and years, which gave them knowledge of the coming of the Solstices, the Equinoxes and the eclipse cycle.

Stay tuned for part II, and I’ll tell you how they did it.

Photography sources:

The Queen Stone by Alan J. Wood of Wyenot News

The Bush Barrow Lozenge, Wikipedia

Ground plan of Stonehenge, Ancient Monuments Branch, Ministry of Public Building and Works, England

Ogham tract by J Rankin

Other sources:

 Alfred Watkins, “The Old Straight Track”                                                                                          

Alfred Watkins, “Early British Trackways, Moats, Mounds, Camps and Sites”. A lecture given to the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club, at Hereford, September, 1921

Arthur Cotterell, “Encyclopedia of Mythology”

Bryan Sykes, “The Seven Daughters of Eve”

Bryan Sykes, “Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History, published in the United States and Canada as, “Saxons, Vikings and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland”

Caitlin and John Matthews, “Encyclopaedia of Celtic Wisdom”

D. P. Gregg, “The Stonehenge Codes” (PDF)

Fernand Neil, “The Mysteries of Stonehenge”

Gerald S Hawkins and John B White “Stonehenge Decoded”

J. Giesen, Sun and Moon Lozenge Applet

Joseph J. Thorndike Jr., “Discovery of Lost Worlds”

Liz and Colin Murray, “The Celtic Tree Oracle, a System of Divination”

Richard Cavendish, “Prehistoric England”

Zecharia Sitchin, “When Time Began”

Wikipedia, Y haplogene and MtDNA

Y Geiriadur Mawr, “The Complete Welsh-English, English-Welsh Dictionary.